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The Connected Iron Age

Interregional Networks in the Eastern Mediterranean, 900-600 BCE

An interdisciplinary consideration of how eastern Mediterranean cultures in the first millennium BCE were meaningfully connected.
The early first millennium BCE marks one of the most culturally diverse periods in the history of the eastern Mediterranean. Surveying the region from Greece to Iraq, one finds a host of cultures and political formations, all distinct, yet all visibly connected in meaningful ways. These include the early polities of Geometric period Greece, the Phrygian kingdom of central Anatolia, the Syro-Anatolian city-states, the seafaring Phoenicians and the biblical Israelites of the southern Levant, Egypt’s Twenty-first through Twenty-fifth Dynasties, the Urartian kingdom of the eastern Anatolian highlands, and the expansionary Neo-Assyrian Empire of northern Mesopotamia. This volume adopts an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the social and political significance of how interregional networks operated within and between Mediterranean cultures during that era.


“This volume is essential reading for anyone studying ancient Mediterranean societies and their development. It is an important and timely manifestation of new thinking and innovative approaches to the complex world of the early first millennium BCE and its cross-cultural connections.”

Lin Foxhall, Rathbone Professor of Ancient History and Classical Archaeology, University of Liverpool

The Connected Iron Age is a solid and worthwhile collection that brings an original focus on the East Mediterranean to the burgeoning literature on connectivity.”

Peter van Dommelen, Joukowsky Family Professor in Archaeology, Brown University

“This volume is an up-to-date synthesis of interregional networks during the early first millennium in the Mediterranean from Iberia in the west to the Levantine coast and the Black Sea in the east. It explores a range of recent theoretical approaches regarding economic, social, and cultural connectivity and offers new and vigorous directions to the study of Mediterranean interactions and cultural contacts of the period.”

Irene Lemos, University of Oxford

Table of Contents

List of Figures
Chapter 1
Interregional Interaction in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Iron Age
James F. Osborne and Jonathan M. Hall
Chapter 2
Phoenicians and the Iron Age Mediterranean: A Response to Phoenicoskepticism
Carolina López-Ruiz
Chapter 3
Mediterranean Interconnections beyond the City: Rural Consumption and Trade in Archaic Cyprus
Catherine Kearns
Chapter 4
Connectivity, Style, and Decorated Metal Bowls in the Iron Age Mediterranean
Marian H. Feldman
Chapter 5
Close Encounters of the Lasting Kind: Greeks, Phoenicians, and Others in the Iron Age Mediterranean
Sarah P. Morris
Chapter 6
The Mediterranean and the Black Sea in the Early First Millennium BCE: Greeks, Phoenicians, Phrygians, and Lydians
Susan Sherratt
Chapter 7
Greeks, Phoenicians, Phrygians, Trojans, and Other Creatures in the Aegean: Connections, Interactions, Misconceptions
John K. Papadopoulos
Chapter 8
Anatolia, the Aegean, and the Neo-Assyrian Empire: Material Connections
Ann C. Gunter
Chapter 9
Egypt and the Mediterranean in the Early Iron Age
Brian Muhs
Chapter 10
Globalizing the Mediterranean’s Iron Age
Tamar Hodos
Chapter 11
Six Provocations in Search of a Pretext
Michael Dietler

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