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The Victoria History of Middlesex: St Clement Danes, 1660-1900

. This period was one of rapid urban transformation in the parish, as the large aristocratic riverside houses of the 17th century gave way to a bustling centre of commerce and culture in the 18th. The slums that developed in the 19th century were then swept away by the grand constructions of the Royal Courts of Justice and the Victoria Embankment, followed by the new thoroughfares of Aldwych and Kingsway, which are still the major landmarks in the area. Characterised by its contrasts, St Clement Danes was home to a mix of rich and poor residents, including lawyers, artisans, servants and prostitutes. The history of this fascinating area introduces a cast of characters ranging from the Twinings tea-trading family, to the rowdy theatre-going butchers of Clare Market and from the famous Samuel Johnson, to the infamous pornographers of Holywell Street. This book also unpicks the complicated structure of local government in the parish, and provides detailed accounts of the parish schools and charities.

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Table of Contents

List of Illustrations Acknowledgements Foreword Introduction The Parish of St Clement Danes Origins and Boundaries Population Communications Settlement and Built Environment 17th Century 18th Century 19th Century Economic History The Twinings Theatres Literary Life Local Government Parochial Government Circa 1700–64 From 1764 to 1855 From 1855 to 1901 Policing Highways and Street Cleaning Poor Relief Charities Education Society Political Life Clubs, Associations and Electoral Politics Street Politics: Crowds, Riots and Festivals Religious History Parochial Origins and Organisations Religious Life Catholicism Protestant Nonconformity Epilogue Abbreviations Index

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