The essays in this volume re-examine, from a number of different angles the process of Independence in Spanish America. The focus is to a large extent on the consequences of the wars of Independence for the newly established republics. However the first section deals with a critical review of the historiography the ‘revolutionary’ nature of Independence and the comparative elements of Independence in the Americas. The remainder of the book examines the development of the wars and the impact that Independence had on political instability culture citizenship and the formation of new nations. In addition to general chapters there are individual chapters devoted to New Granada Venezuela Mexico Chile and Argentina.