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Distributed for University Press of New England

The Battle for the Fourteenth Colony

America’s War of Liberation in Canada, 1774–1776

In this dramatic retelling of one of history’s great “what-ifs,” Mark R. Anderson examines the American colonies’ campaign to bring Quebec into the Continental confederation and free the Canadians from British “tyranny.” This significant reassessment of a little-studied campaign examines developments on both sides of the border that rapidly proceeded from peaceful diplomatic overtures to a sizable armed intervention. The military narrative encompasses Richard Montgomery’s plodding initial operations, Canadian partisan cooperation with officers like Ethan Allen, and the harrowing experiences of Benedict Arnold’s Kennebec expedition, as well as the sudden collapse of British defenses that secured the bulk of the province for the rebel cause. The book provides new insight into both Montgomery’s tragic Québec City defeat and a small but highly significant loyalist uprising in the rural northern parishes that was suppressed by Arnold and his Canadian patriot allies. Anderson closely examines the evolving relationships between occupiers and occupied, showing how rapidly changing circumstances variously fostered cooperation and encouraged resistance among different Canadian elements. The book homes in on the key political and military factors that ultimately doomed America’s first foreign war of liberation and resulted in the Continental Army’s decisive expulsion from Canada on the eve of the Declaration of Independence. The first full treatment of this fascinating chapter in Revolutionary War history in over a century, Anderson’s account is especially revealing in its presentation of contentious British rule in Quebec, and of Continental beliefs that Canadiens would greet the soldiers as liberators and allies in a common fight against the British yoke. This thoroughly researched and action-packed history will appeal to American and Canadian history buffs and military experts alike.

460 pages | 6 1/4 x 9 1/4

History: American History

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Table of Contents

List of Maps • Preface • Acknowledgments • Introduction • The Only Link Wanting: The First Continental Congress Invites Canada • New Subjects to the King: Canadians and the Province of Quebec • Fuel for Rebellion: The British Party and the Quebec Act of 1774 • Authors and Agitators: Patriot Correspondence and John Brown’s Mission • Preemptive Strikes: Ticonderoga and Fort St-Jean • That Damned Absurd Word “Liberty”: Quebec’s Own Rebellion • To Erect the Glorious Standard of American Liberty in Canada: The Decision to Intervene • The Canadians Opened the Road: Continentals and Partisans on the Richelieu River • The Treachery and Villainy of the Canadians: Collaboration, Resistance, and Siege in the Montreal District • Another Path to the Heart of Quebec: Canada’s Capital, Hannibal’s Heir, and the Kennebec Expedition • To Winter in Canada: “Free” Montréal and Fortress Québec • Time to Consider Politics: The Continental Congress, the Northern Army, and a Committee for Canada • Contest of Wills at Québec: The Fortress Capital—Key to Victory? • The Question of Loyalists: General Wooster and “Liberated” Montréal, 1775 • A Critical Month: Wooster’s Montréal, January 1776 • Evolving Occupation: Montréal and the Struggle for the Canadian Spirit • A Spirit of Cooperation and Understanding: William Goforth, Jean-Baptiste Badeaux, and Trois-Rivières • Patriot Zealots: Benedict Arnold, Canadian Patriots, and the Québec City Blockade • Spring of Unrest: A Canadian Battle in the Quebec District • A Late-Changing Cast: New Continental Leadership for Canada • May Tides: New Arrivals and Massive Change for the Province • The Sad Necessity of Abandoning Canada: Military Collapse and the End of the Canadian Continental Experience • The Causes of the Miscarriages in Canada: Carleton and Congress Investigate the Failures • Conclusion: Misinterpretations and Missteps in a War to Spread Democracy • Appendix 1. Canadian Voices: A Note on Sources • Appendix 2. The Polarized Legacy of General David Wooster • Source Abbreviations • Name Abbreviations • Notes • Select Bibliography • Index

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