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Distributed for Brandeis University Press

American Jewish History

A Primary Source Reader

Presenting the American Jewish historical experience from its communal beginnings to the present through documents, photographs, and other illustrations, many of which have never before been published, this entirely new collection of source materials complements existing textbooks on American Jewish history with an organization and pedagogy that reflect the latest historiographical trends and the most creative teaching approaches. Ten chapters, organized chronologically, include source materials that highlight the major thematic questions of each era and tell many stories about what it was like to immigrate and acculturate to American life, practice different forms of Judaism, engage with the larger political, economic, and social cultures that surrounded American Jews, and offer assistance to Jews in need around the world. At the beginning of each chapter, the editors provide a brief historical overview highlighting some of the most important developments in both American and American Jewish history during that particular era. Source materials in the collection are preceded by short headnotes that orient readers to the documents’ historical context and significance.

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Table of Contents

Preface • List of Abbreviations • Introduction • CHAPTER 1. CREATING COMMUNITY: THE AMERICAN JEWISH EXPERIENCE DURING THE COLONIAL PERIOD, 1654–1776 • BEGINNINGS • Rabbi Isaac Aboab de Fonseca, Recife, Brazil, n.d. • Recife, Brazil, by Zacharias Wagenaer, n.d. • Peter Stuyvesant, Manhattan, to the Amsterdam Chamber of Directors, September 22, 1654 • Amsterdam Jewry’s Successful Intercession for the Jewish Immigrants, January 1655 • Extract from Reply by the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company to Stuyvesant’s Letter, April 26, 1655 • Moses Lopez Becomes a Naturalized Citizen, 1741 • Barnard Gratz to Michael Gratz, Giving Advice on Immigrating to Philadelphia, November 20, 1758 • GOVERNMENT, POLITICS, AND CIVIC STATUS • Description by a Non-Jew of the Jews of New York City, November 2, 1748 • Why the Court Refused to Naturalize Aaron Lopez, Superior Court of Rhode Island, Newport, SS. March Term, 1762 • BUSINESS AND LABOR • Petition from Abraham Haim DeLucena and Justus Bosch to Governor Robert Hunter, Requesting Permission to Ship Provisions to Jamaica, June 3, 1713 • Newspaper Business Advertisement against Emanuel Abrams, by Allan Melville, October 21, 1754 • Reply Advertisement by Emanuel Abrams against Alan Melville, 1754 • Isaac Elizer and Samuel Moses to Captain John Peck, Giving Instructions for a Journey to Purchase Slaves, October 29, 1762 • RELIGION • Touro Synagogue, Exterior, n.d. • Touro Synagogue, Interior, Front View, n.d. • Constitution of Shearith Israel, New York, the Oldest Extant Constitution of a North American Jewish Community, September 15, 1728 • The Prosecutor’s Summary of the Evidence from the Trial of Solomon Hays, 1755–1756 • FAMILY LIFE AND PHILANTHROPY • Abigaill Franks, in New York, to Her Son, Heartsey, in London, June 7, 1743 • Meir Josephson to Michael Gratz concerning a Female Domestic, July 25, 1762 • Hannah Paysaddon to Aaron Lopez, Requesting Charity, July 26, 1770 • Congregation Gate of Heaven (London) to American Jews, Requesting Support for the Jews of Hebron, Palestine, May 5, 1773 • CHAPTER 2. FORGING A NATION: THE AMERICAN JEWISH EXPERIENCE DURING THE REVOLUTION AND THE EARLY NATIONAL PERIOD, 1776–1820 • IMMIGRATION AND ADAPTATION • Joseph Salvador to His Cousin Emanuel Mendes da Costa, Describing America, January 22, 1785 • Rebecca Samuel to Her Parents in Hamburg, Germany, Describing Her Experiences in Virginia, January 12, 1791 • GOVERNMENT, POLITICS, AND CIVIC STATUS • Francis Salvador to South Carolina Chief Justice William H. Drayton, Reporting Local Militia Activity against Native Americans and Loyalists, July 18 and 19, 1776 • Maryland Constitution, Articles 33, 35, and 55, Restricting Officeholders to Christians, November 11, 1776 • New York Constitution, Articles 35, 38, and 39, Making New York the First State to Emancipate Jews, April 20, 1777 • Isaac Touro, a Loyalist, to British General Guy Carleton, Requesting Funds to Relocate to Jamaica, December 12, 1782 • Jonas Phillips, Asking the Constitutional Convention to Emancipate Pennsylvania’s Jews, September 7, 1787 • Address of the Newport Congregation to the President of the United States of America, August 17, 1790 • President George Washington to the Newport Congregation, 1790 • Anonymous Reply to James Rivington’s Antisemitic Preface in The Democrat, December 17, 1795 • Sampson Simson’s Hebrew Oration at Columbia College, 1800 • Isaac Harby to James Monroe on Religious Freedom and the Recall of Mordecai Noah from the U.S. Consulate in Tunis, 1816 • Thomas Jefferson to Mordecai Noah on Religious Tolerance, May 28, 1818 • Thomas Jefferson to Jacob de la Motta, September 1, 1820 • The First Form of the “Jew Bill,” 1819 • J. I. Cohen to E. S. Thomas on the Maryland Jew Bill, 1818 • BUSINESS AND LABOR • Haym Salomon, Business Advertisement, Freeman’s Journal, 1782 • Will of Charleston’s Jacob Jacobs, Which Included Slaves, 1797 • A. H. Cohen to Thomas Jefferson, regarding the Health Benefits of Mineral Water, December 21, 1807 • Reply of Thomas Jefferson to A. H. Cohen, February 10, 1808 • RELIGION • Congregationalist Minister Ezra Stiles to His Friend Rabbi Haim Isaac Carigal, July 7, 1775 • Appeal to the Citizens of Philadelphia for Donations to Save Their Synagogue from Foreclosure, Mikve Israel Congregation, Philadelphia, April 30, 1788 • Hannah Adams, Reporting on Gershom Seixas’s Survey of American Jewry, 1812 • Address by Phillip Milledoler on Evangelizing the Jews, 1817 • FAMILY LIFE • Frances Sheftall to Her Husband, July 20, 1780 • Samuel Jones, Last Will and Testament, Including Information on His African American Slave, Jenny, and Their Son, Emanuel, January 20, 1809 • CHAPTER 3. MIGRATIONS ACROSS AMERICA: JEWS IN THE ANTEBELLUM PERIOD, 1820–1860 • IMMIGRATION AND ADAPTATION • Penina Moïse, Poem, “To Persecuted Foreigners,” 1820 • Charles L. Mailert to August Mailert, on His Reservations about Immigrating to the United States, 1835 • Reasons for Emigration from Bavaria to the United States, Leipziger Zeitung, 1839 • Joseph Jonas to Rev. Isaac Leeser, Describing Life in Ohio, December 25, 1843 • GOVERNMENT, POLITICS, AND CIVIC STATUS • Letter from Jacob Ezekiel to President John Tyler, Arguing That America Is Not a “Christian Nation,” 1841—with Tyler’s Reply • BUSINESS AND LABOR • Lt. Col. Aaron Levy, “On Land Promoting,” 1821 • Abraham Kohn, Reflections of a New England Peddler, ca. 1842–1843 • Henry J. Labatt, Newspaper Article on Jews and Business in the Gold Rush, True Pacific Messenger, 1861 • RELIGION • Memorial to the President and Members of the Adjunta of Kahal Kadosh Beth Elohim of Charleston, South Carolina, Demanding Religious Reform, December 23, 1824 • Abraham Rice to Isaac Leeser, regarding Religious Reform, December 15, 1848 • Rosa Mordecai, Memoir Describing Hebrew School Education in Antebellum America, 1850s • Isaac Jalonick to Isaac Leeser on Jewish Life in Texas, May 28, 1853 • I. J. Benjamin, “The Education of Jewish Women in America, 1859–1862” • SOCIAL LIFE • Mordecai Manuel Noah, Address at Ararat, a Proposed Refuge for Jews, 1825 • Review of Harrington, a Fictional Account Describing Intermarriage, 1833 • ANTI-JEWISH ATTITUDES • Newspaper Account, Cohen-Chisolm Duel, July 25, 1827 • Israel B. Kursheedt and Theodore J. Seixas to President Martin Van Buren, on the Damascus Blood Libel, August 24, 1840 • CHAPTER 4. SLAVERY AND FREEDOM: AMERICAN JEWS DURING THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION, 1861–1879 • CHOOSING SIDES • Letter from Alfred Mordecai to His Brother G. W. Mordecai, March 17, 1861 • Private Letter from Alfred Mordecai to Lt. Col. James W. Ripley, on His Resignation from the U.S. Army, May 2, 1861 • “The Jews and Slavery,” by Bernhard Felsenthal, Sinai, July 1862. • Eleanor H. Cohen, Journal Entries Detailing the Author’s Love for Both the North and the South, Champion of the Lost Cause, February 28, 1865 • JEWS AND THE UNION • Abram J. Dittenhoefer, Excerpt regarding Lincoln’s Election, from How We Elected Lincoln?Personal Recollections of Lincoln and Men of His Time, 1860 • Grant’s General Orders Number 11, 1862 • Gen. H. W. Halleck’s Revocation of Grant’s Orders Number 11, January 4, 1863 • Letter from B’nai B’rith Missouri Lodge, Protesting Grant’s Orders Number 11, January 5, 1863 • Isaac M. Wise, “The Revolutionary Object of Extremists,” Editorial Opposing Abolitionism, the Israelite, February 27, 1863 • Myer S. Isaacs to Abraham Lincoln on the Jewish Vote in the 1864 Election, October 26, 1864 • JEWS AND THE CONFEDERACY • Resolution of the Hebrew Congregation in Support of the Confederacy, Shreveport, Louisiana, May 1861 • Eugenia Levy Phillips, Diary Reporting the Author’s Experiences as a Confederate, 1861 • Twenty-Year Bond Issued by the Confederacy in Honor of Judah P. Benjamin, 1861 • Confederate Two-Dollar Bill Showing Judah P. Benjamin, 1864 • Isaac Levy to His Sister, Leonora, Detailing the Celebration of Passover at a Confederate Encampment in Adam’s Run, South Carolina, April 24, 1864 • JEWS AND RECONSTRUCTION • Isaac M. Wise, “On to Richmond,” Describing Conditions in the Reconstruction South, the Israelite, June 28, 1867 • Double Lynching of a Jew and a Negro, the Israelite, August 28, 1868 • Benjamin F. Peixotto, U.S. Consul in Romania, to President Ulysses S. Grant, Denying Accusations “of a Scandalous Character” Leveled against His Person, November 6, 1871 • RELIGION • Morris Raphall, “The Bible View of Slavery: A Discourse,” a Defense of Slavery by a Northern Rabbi, January 4, 1861 • David Einhorn’s Response to Raphall, Offering a Baltimore Rabbi’s Opposition to Slavery, Sinai, 1861 • Petition from American Jews to the U.S. Senate and House, on the Chaplaincy Issue, 1861 or 1862 • Rabbi Kalisch to U.S. Congress, regarding the Chaplaincy Issue, December 9, 1861 • Rev. Arnold Fischel to Mr. Henry I. Hart, President of the Board of Delegates of American Israelites, December 11, 1861 • Isaac Leeser to Abraham Lincoln, Requesting the Commissioning of Jewish Chaplains, August 21, 1862 • Letter from the U.S. Surgeon General Opposing the Commissioning of Jewish Chaplains in Washington, D.C., October 27, 1862 • Excerpt from Isidor Straus’s Memoirs, 1862–1863 • CHAPTER 5. THE GILDED AGE AND PROGRESSIVE ERA: AMERICAN JEWISH LIFE, 1880–1918 • IMMIGRANT LIFE IN THE OLD AND THE NEW COUNTRY • Letter to the Editor, Urging Eastern European Jews Not to Emigrate, Ha-Magid, May 3, 1882 • Abraham Cahan’s Impressions upon Arrival in the United States, “Imaginary America,” 1882 • Emma Lazarus, “The New Colossus,” 1883 • H. L. Sabsovich, “The Woodbine Settlement of the Baron de Hirsch Fund,” Describing the Creation of a Jewish Agricultural Settlement in New Jersey, 1891 • Constitution of the United States and Declaration of Independence; cover, in English and Yiddish, 1892 • Mary Antin, Selection Describing the Author’s Journey to the United States, From Plotzk to Boston, 1899 • Baseball, Forward, August 27, 1909 • Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society, Cover of the Jewish Immigrant, January 1909 • Creation of the New York Jewish Federation by the State of New York, May 15, 1917 • GOVERNMENT, POLITICS, AND CIVIC STATUS • Revised Words to Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address, Written by HIAS for an Event Honoring the Election of Moses Alexander as Governor of Idaho, 1915 • BUSINESS AND LABOR • Julia Richman, Selection from “New York’s East European Working Women,” 1893 • Morris Winchevsky, “A Socialist Parodies the Ten Commandments,” 1895 • “Women as Wage Earners,” Ordens Echo, 1897 • The Protocol of Peace, Ending the 1910 Cloak Makers’ Strike, New York City, 1910 • Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire, March 1911 • “The Big Stick,” regarding the Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire, April 7, 1911 • Rose Schneiderman, Selection regarding Labor Relations in the Early Twentieth Century and the Shirtwaist Fire, All for One, 1967 • RELIGION • Menu, “Trefa Banquet,” July 11, 1883 • The Pittsburgh Platform, 1885 • The Preamble and Article II of the Constitution of the Jewish Theological Seminary, May 9, 1886 • Ray Frank, “What a Jewish Girl Would Not Do If She Were a Rabbi,” May 23, 1890 • Cyrus Adler, Selection from “A Jewish Renaissance,” the American Hebrew, November 9, 1894 • Principles Adopted by the [Orthodox] Jewish Congregational Union of America, June 8, 1898 • Elkan C. Voorsanger, “Passover Services in France,” Emanu-El, May 3, 1918 • FAMILY LIFE • Martha Thal, Selections from Early Days: The Story of Sarah Thal, on Life in a Pioneer Farmer Family in North Dakota, ca. 1880 • “Bintel Brief,” on Intermarriage, Forward, 1906 • Emma Goldman to Margaret Sanger on Birth Control, December 7, 1915 • “A New Supplication for a Woman Whose Husband Has Deserted Her,” 1916 • ZIONISM • Selection regarding American Zionism from Zvi Hirsch Masliansky’s Memoirs, ca. 1895 • Isaac Mayer Wise’s Rejection of Zionism, Central Conference of American Rabbis, July 6, 1897 • Moses Descending with the Ten Commandments into Yosemite Valley, Congregation Sherith Israel, San Francisco, 1905 • Louis Brandeis, “The Jewish Problem: How to Solve It” (Excerpt), April 25, 1915 • ANTISEMITISM • Simon Wolf, “Kishineff—An Appeal,” Jewish Criterion, May 22, 1903 • “The Mass Meeting,” Pertaining to the Kishinev Pogrom, Jewish Criterion, June 12, 1903 • “Bintel Brief,” Letter from an Immigrant Experiencing Antisemitism, Forward, 1907 • Police Commissioner Theodore A. Bingham, Selection from “Foreign Criminals in New York,” September 1908 • Leo Frank to C. P. Connolly, Discussing the Murder Notes and How These Might Demonstrate His Innocence, March 11, 1915 • Leo Frank, August 1915 • Leo Frank, n.d. • JEWISH AID, RELIEF, AND PHILANTHROPY • Resolution Founding the National Council of Jewish Women, September 7, 1893 • Louis Marshall to Joseph Stolz, Organizing the American Jewish Committee, January 12, 1906 • Jacob Schiff to President Taft on the Mistreatment of Jews in Russia, February 20, 1911 • CHAPTER 6. AMERICAN JEWS BETWEEN THE WORLD WARS, 1918–1941 • GOVERNMENT, POLITICS, AND CIVIC STATUS • Relief Expenditures of Fifty-Two Jewish Family Welfare Agencies, 1929–1935 • Isaac Rubinow, “What Do We Owe Peter Stuyvesant?” 1930 • “New NRA Compliance Director Blends Efficiency and Beauty,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, December 9, 1934 • BUSINESS AND LABOR • Judah L. Magnes, Address Delivered at the Opening Session of the First Jewish Labor Congress, January 16, 1919 • Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, Statement Supporting Organized Labor, September 1, 1919 • Religion • Louis Marshall to Elias A. Cohen, January 25, 1923 • “Yeshiva to Erect Modern College Buildings,” Jewish Tribune, September 26, 1924 • Bernard Revel, “The Vision of Yeshiva College,” 1926 • Conference for the Discussion of the Problem of Judaism, Chicago, February 21– 22, 1928 • Rabbi Israel H. Levinthal to Jacob Rader Marcus on the Rabbinic Training of Helen Hadassah, 1939 • POPULAR CULTURE • Edgar A. Guest, “Speaking of Greenberg,” 1934 • INTERFAITH AND INTERGROUP RELATIONS • Constitution and By-Laws of the Synagogue Council of America, 1926 • The Story of the National Conference of Christians and Jews, 1928 • ZIONISM • Broadside, Zionist Organization of America, Early 1920s • Henrietta Szold, Familiar Letters from Palestine, December 21, 1921 • Statement Acknowledging Increasing Support for Zionism, Central Conference of American Rabbis, June 1935 • Excerpts from the “Guiding Principles of Reform Judaism,” Central Conference of American Rabbis, Forty-Eighth Annual Convention, May 27, 1937, Columbus, Ohio • “Official Declaration of the Rabbinical Assembly,” June 7–9, 1937 • Labor Zionist Handbook, Poale Zion/Zeire Zion of America, 1939 • ANTISEMITISM • Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, “Henry Ford’s Challenge and a Jew’s Reply,” October 10, 1920 • “The Scope of Jewish Dictatorship in the U.S.,” Dearborn Independent, December 11, 1920 • A. Lawrence Lowell to Judge Julian Mack, on Jewish Quotas at Harvard College, March 29, 1922 • “Kaplan” Page in The Lucky Bag Yearbook, United States Naval Academy, 1922 • Letter from West Virginia Senator Howard Sutherland to President Harding, June 1922 • “The Declaration of Independence Addressed the World,” Der Tog, July 4, 1924 • Arthur M. Kaplan, “Are Medical Colleges Unfair to Jewish Students?” Jewish Tribune, August 1, 1930 • “Memorandum on Nazi Activities in the United States,” Non-Sectarian Anti-Nazi League to Champion Human Rights, 1936 • American Nazi Parade, New York City, 1937 • Excerpts from the Speech of Rep. Samuel L. Dickstein, Delivered before the National Convention of the Anti-Nazi League, May 22, 1938 • “Persecution—Jewish and Christian,” Broadcast by Rev. Charles E. Coughlin, November 20, 1938 • Stephen S. Wise, “Coughlinism, Jews and America,” December 4, 1938 • Charles Lindbergh, Des Moines Speech, September 11, 1941 • JEWISH AID, RELIEF, AND PHILANTHROPY • Louis Marshall to President Woodrow Wilson, Requesting Support for European Jews after World War I, August 6, 1919 • President Wilson to Marshall, Rejecting the Request, August 14, 1919 • Report on the Joint Distribution Committee’s Efforts to Purchase Farmland for Russian Jews, Dr. Joseph A. Rosen, 1925 • “$67,000,000 Spent in 40 Countries by the JDC since 1914 to Rebuild Lives and Souls of Stricken Jews,” 1927 • Stephen S. Wise, Addressing a Mass Meeting Held at Madison Square Garden, March 27, 1933 • Abba Hillel Silver to Samuel Wohl, Opposing a Proposal to Bring German-Jewish Children to Palestine, November 26, 1934 • Jewish War Veterans Ladies’ Auxiliaries, “Naziism Is Spreading and So Must Our Boycott Activities,” ca. 1938 • Letter from Abraham Joshua Heschel to Dr. Julian Morgenstern, April 30, 1939 • Letter from Morgenstern to Heschel, July 5, 1939 • CHAPTER 7. WAGING WAR: AMERICAN JEWS, WORLD WAR II, AND THE SHOAH, 1941–1945 • GOVERNMENT, POLITICS, AND CIVIC STATUS • Hitler Poster, “Wanted for Murder,” 1941 • Distribution of Jewish Servicemen by Branches and Activities, 1941–1945 • Irving Berlin, Lyrics, “This Is the Army, Mr. Jones,” 1942 • Passover Observed by Armed Forces, 1943 • Lt. Dick Gottlieb, Affidavit, Recounting His Experience Liberating the Dachau Concentration Camp near Landsberg, Germany, April 1945 • INTERFAITH AND INTERGROUP RELATIONS • John J. Mahoney to Chaplain S. Joshua Kohn, regarding the February 3, 1943, Sinking of the USS Dorchester, December 7, 1944 • U.S. Postage Stamp Commemorating Clergy Who Died in the Sinking of the USS Dorchester, 1948 • THE HOLOCAUST AND ZIONISM • “Statement of Principles by Non-Zionist Rabbis,” American Council for Judaism, August 12, 1942 • Telegram from Gerhart Riegner (via Samuel Silverman) to Stephen S. Wise, August 29, 1942 • Letter from Stephen S. Wise to Franklin D. Roosevelt, December 2, 1942 • Sumner Welles to Stephen S. Wise, February 9, 1943 • We Will Never Die Program, Memorializing the Slaughtered Jews in Europe and Commemorating Jewish Contributions to Civilization, March 9, 1943 • Report on Attempts to Stage We Will Never Die, Early 1944 • Max Lerner, “What about the Jews, FDR?” July 22, 1943 • Rabbi Abba Hillel Silver, Selection from “Zionism: What It Is—What It Is Not,” ca. 1944 • “Report to the Secretary on the Acquiescence of This Government in the Murder of the Jews,” Treasury Department, January 13, 1944 • Franklin Roosevelt Establishes a War Refugee Board, January 22, 1944 • Jewish Refugees at Emergency Shelter, Fort Ontario, August 4, 1944 • Leland Robinson et al. to President Harry Truman, Requesting U.S. Citizenship for Refugees Housed at Fort Ontario, Oswego, New York, October 22, 1945 • Poster Urging American Jews to Support the United Jewish Appeal Campaign, n.d. • ANTISEMITISM • Chart, Domestic Antisemitism, 1940–1946 • Activities of Antisemitic and Antidemocratic Groups in the United States, American Jewish Congress, April 2, 1943 • Chart, World Jewry before and after the War, 1939–1945 • CHAPTER 8. AMERICAN JEWISH LIFE, 1945–1965 • IMMIGRATION AND ADAPTATION • Levittown (Pa.) Resident Reflects on His Community, 1950s • Income Levels and Religious Affiliation in Levittown, 1950s • “NCRAC Discusses Decline in Jewish Population in Cities,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, June 22, 1955 • GOVERNMENT, POLITICS, AND CIVIC STATUS • Phineas J. Biron, “Portrait of an Informer,” Israel Light, December 31, 1947 • Preface to the Transcript of Record (June 7, 1952) Provided by the National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case • Flyer for Clemency, Rosenberg Case, May 30, 1953 • “Meaning of the [Rosenberg] Execution,” Jewish Life, August 1953 • Soviet Cable Incriminating Julius Rosenberg, September 21, 1944 • RELIGION • Maurice L. Zigmond, Selection from “Brandeis University Is One Year Old,” 1949 • Rabbi Abba Hillel Silver, Selection from “Living Judaism,” Delivered at the Dedication of the New UAHC Headquarters, October 27, 1951 • Beth Sholom Synagogue, Designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, 1953 • Image from the American Jewish Tercentenary Filmstrip, Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1954 • Menachem Schneerson, “In Orthodoxy the Woman Is Not Inferior,” May 27, 1957 • “Ufaratzta!” A Programmatic Statement Delivered by the Lubavitcher Rebbe, Menachem M. Schneerson, 1959 • Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson, “Letter on the Question of Prayer in the Public Schools,” 1964 • FAMILY LIFE • Mrs. Allen I. Edles, Selection from “The American Jewish Woman of Tomorrow,” 1958 • POPULAR CULTURE • Bess Myerson, “Miss America Speaks to Young America,” Jewish Veteran, 1945 • INTERFAITH AND INTERGROUP RELATIONS • Selection from “A Statement by Stephen S. Wise to a U.S. Senate Education Sub-Committee,” April 1947 • Rabbi Julian B. Feibelman, “Petition to the Orleans Parish School Board,” September 12, 1955 • Rabbi Jacob Rothschild, “No Place to Hide,” Southern Israelite, August 1963 • Rabbi William Malev, “The Jew of the South in the Conflict on Segregation,” Conservative Judaism, 1958 • Selection from an Address by South Carolina Speaker of the House Solomon Blatt to the Hebrew Benevolent Society of Charleston, April 6, 1959 • Selection from an Open Letter from Rabbi Richard W. Winograd to the National Director of B’nai B’rith, 1963 • Selection from a Speech Delivered by Rabbi Joachim Prinz at the March on Washington, August 28, 1963 • March on Washington, August 28, 1963 • Search for Civil Rights Workers James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner, 1964 • Selection from Oral History Interview with Kivie Kaplan, regarding His Entrance into Civil Rights Work and His Election as President of the NAACP, 1970 • ZIONISM • President Harry S. Truman, Recognition of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948 • Exchange between David Ben-Gurion and Jacob Blaustein on the Relationship between American Jews and the State of Israel, August 1950 • JEWISH AID, RELIEF, AND PHILANTHROPY • “Major U.S. Jewish Groups Appeal for Equal Rights for Soviet Jews,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, September 29, 1960 • “UN Told Russia Denies Universal Declaration of Human Rights to Jews,” Jewish Criterion, November 18, 1960 • “Khrushchev Talks about Soviet Jews,” Jewish Criterion, March 31, 1961 • “Soviet Mistreatment of Jews Attacked in Both Houses of U.S. Congress,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, January 25, 1962 • ANTISEMITISM • American Jewish Committee, 1945, 1950–1959, Chart, Antisemitism in the United States during the 1940s and 1950s • “No Anti-Jewish Bias Exists in New York College Admission Study Shows,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, July 27, 1959 • CHAPTER 9. TURNING INWARD: JEWS AND AMERICAN LIFE, 1965–1980 • GOVERNMENT, POLITICS, AND CIVIC STATUS • Betty Friedan, “A Comfortable Concentration Camp?” 1963 • Norman Podhoretz, “My Negro Problem?and Ours,” Commentary, February 1963 • Michael Wyschogrod, Selection from “The Jewish Interest in Vietnam,” Tradition, Winter 1966 • Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel, Selection from “The Moral Outrage of Vietnam,” January 31, 1967 • “Radical Saul Alinsky: Prophet of Power to the People,” Time, March 2, 1970 • Jewish Defense League Ten-Point Program, n.d. • Zvi Lowenthal and Jonathan Braun, “An Interview with Meir Kahane,” 1971 • Jewish Defense League Flyer, n.d. • Jo Ann Levine, “A Woman’s Place Is in the House,” Christian Science Monitor, June 28, 1972 • Arthur Hertzberg and David G. Epstein, “Jewish Political Trend . . . ,”Los Angeles Times, May 24, 1984 • Proposed Mission Statement of New Jewish Agenda, 1987 • New Jewish Agenda Promotional Flyer: Some Examples of Our Work, n.d. • RELIGION • “Depaul University, a Catholic Institution, Opens Full Department of Jewish Studies,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, September 4, 1968 • “Jewish Students Launch Drive for Judaic Studies Departments in City University System,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, December 9, 1970 • Sylvia Rothchild, “Havurat Shalom: Community without Conformity,” Hadassah, June 1970 • Bernard Reisman, “The Impact of the Havurah,” Jewish Digest, Summer 1978 • Ezrat Nashim, “Jewish Women Call for Change,” 1972 • “The First American Woman Rabbi,” Reflections by Rabbi Sally Priesand, 1972–1975 • “Jewish Women’s Mag Lilith Hits the Stands,” Jewish Chronicle, July 15, 1976 • INTERFAITH AND INTERGROUP RELATIONS • “Sharp Decline Reported in Anti-Jewish Bias in Winter Resorts,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, August 6, 1965 • Statement for Release by Black and Jewish Organizations, August 28, 1979 • NAACP Head Benjamin Hooks, Speech on Civil Rights, American Jews, and the Palestine Liberation Organization, 1979 • Advertisement, “Jews against Jackson,” New York Times, November 11, 1983 • POPULAR CULTURE • Philip Roth, Selection from “Writing about Jews,” 1963 • Robert Alter, “Malamud as Jewish Writer,” Commentary, September 1966 • Saul Bellow, “I Said That I Was an American, a Jew, a Writer by Trade,” November 14, 1976 • Allan Sherman, Lyrics, “If I Were a Tishman,” 1967 • ZIONISM • “Half of All Americans Register Support for Israel; No American Backs Arabs,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, June 12, 1967 • Milton K. Susman, “As I See It,” Jewish Chronicle, June 16, 1967 • “The Portrait of Courage: The People Made Israel Victorious,” Jewish Chronicle, June 16, 1967 • “The Week That Rocked the World,” June 5–11, Jewish Chronicle, June 16, 1967 • Breira’s National Platform, February 21, 1977 • JEWISH AID, RELIEF, AND PHILANTHROPY • Jackson-Vanik Amendment, 1974 • Poster of Anatoly Sharansky, n.d. • CHAPTER 10. CONTEMPORARY AMERICA: JEWISH LIFE SINCE 1980 • IMMIGRATION AND ADAPTATION • Kevin West, “The Persian Conquest,” W, July 2009 • Saba Soomekh, American Jewish University, “The Political Emergence of the Los Angeles Persian Community,” 2010 • GOVERNMENT, POLITICS, AND CIVIC STATUS • Vision and Mission Statements, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1993 • “Gore’s Choice for Veep Electrifies American Jews,” Forward, August 11, 2000 • “Remarks as Prepared for Delivery by Senator Joseph Lieberman,” Democratic National Convention, August 16, 2000 • Global Anti-Semitism Review Act, October 8, 2004 • RELIGION • Selections, Mandell L. Berman Institute—North American Jewish Data Bank, n.d. • Rabbi Alexander M. Schindler, “To the Board of Directors of the New York Federation of Reform Synagogues,” March 3, 1983 • Report of the Committee on Patrilineal Descent, Central Conference of American Rabbis, March 15, 1983 • Rabbis Joel Roth and Akiba Lubow, A Standard of Rabbinic Practice regarding Determination of Jewish Identity, 1986 • Press Release, Ezrat Nashim, October 24, 1983 • Rabbi David Weiss Halivni, Letter to the Faculty Assembly of the Jewish Theological Seminary, 1983 • Judith S. Antonelli, “Jewish Feminisms Explore Torah, God, and Sexuality,” Jewish Advocate, January 25, 1991 • Mission Statement of the Society for Humanistic Judaism, October 8, 1999 • Charles Passy, “Debbie Friedman Is a Troubadour of Faith; Synagogues Ring with Folk,” Palm Beach Post, December 6, 2004 • Oren Lee-Parritz, “Synaplex: A Creative Response to a Decline in Synagogue Identification,” Jewish Post, ca. 2007 • Haviva Ner-David, “Breaking the Glass Mehitza,” Hadassah, May 2004 • Josh Nathan-Kazis, “In Dispute over Using ‘Rabba,’ Supporters Find Reason for Optimism,” Forward, March 10, 2010 • Tamar Snyder, “Beyond the Rabba-Rousing,” Jewish Week, March 24, 2010 • Camille Shira Angel, “Rabbi’s Welcome” and Selections from Siddur Sha’ar Zahav, 2009 • ZIONISM • Amanda Carpenter, “J Street Pro-Israel Lobby Takes on AIPAC, Alienates Backers,” Washington Times, October 21, 2009 • Alan M. Dershowitz, “Boycotting Israeli Universities: A Victory for Bigotry,” Haaretz, December 17, 2013 • POPULAR CULTURE • Mission Statement, JDate, 1997 • Paulette Kouffman Sherman, “Eight Love Lessons from the Festival of Light,” December 8, 2013 • Jonathan Miller, “How Adam Sandler’s ‘Chanukah Song’ Helped Save the Jews,” Huffington Post, December 23, 2011 • AMERICAN JEWISH LIFE: TWENTY-FIRST-CENTURY DEVELOPMENTS • Tri-Faith Initiative of Omaha, Nebraska, May 2010 • The Adventure Rabbi Program, 2012 • “Moishe House a Place to Call Home,” March 20, 2013 • Presidential Proclamation—Jewish American Heritage Month, May 2013 • Index

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