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The Religion of Java

Written with a rare combination of analysis and speculation, this comprehensive study of Javanese religion is one of the few books on the religion of a non-Western people which emphasizes variation and conflict in belief as well as similarity and harmony. The reader becomes aware of the intricacy and depth of Javanese spiritual life and the problems of political and social integration reflected in the religion.

The Religion of Java will interest specialists in Southeast Asia, anthropologists and sociologists concerned with the social analysis of religious belief and ideology, students of comparative religion, and civil servants dealing with governmental policy toward Indonesia and Southeast Asia.

Table of Contents

Part One: The "Abangan" Variant
1. The Slametan Communal Feast as a Core Ritual
The Slametan Pattern
The Meaning of the Slametan
2. Spirit Beliefs
Memedis: Frightening Spirits
Lelembuts: Possessing Spirits
Tujuls: Familiar Spirits
Demits: Place Spirits
Danjangs: Guardian Spirits
The Meaning of Spirit Beliefs
3. The Slametan Cycles
Petungan: The Javanese Numerological System
Costs of Slametans
4. The Slametan Cycles: Birth
5. The Slametan Cycles: Circumcision and Marriage
Circumcision: Sunatan
Marriage: Kepanggihan
Social and Economic Aspects of Circumcision and Wedding Ceremonies
6. The Slametan Cycles: Death
Funerals: Lajatan
Beliefs and Attitudes concerning Death
7. The Slametan Cycles: Calendrical, Village, and Intermittent Slametans
Calendrical Slametans
The Village Slametan: Bersih Désa
Intermittent Slametans
8. Curing, Sorcery, and Magic
The Dukun: Curer, Sorcerer, and Ceremonial Specialist
Curing Techniques
Theory of Disease and Curing
The Possessed Curer: Dukun Tiban
Secondary Curing Methods: Magic, Drugs, and Western Medicine
9. Permai: A Modern Abangan Cult
Part Two: The "Santri" Variant
10. Santri versus Abangan
Islam: A General Introduction
The Development of Islam in Indonesia
Santri versus Abangan: General Differences
11. The Development of Islam in Modjokuto
The Rise of Modernism: 1910-1940
The Japanese Period: 1942-1945
The Republican Period: 1945 to Present
12. Conservative versus Modern: The Ideological Background
Fate versus Self-Determination
Totalistic versus Narrowed Religion
Syncretic versus Puristic Islam
Religious Experience versus Religious Behavior
Custom and Scholasticism versus Pragmatism and Rationalism
Conservative and Modern Islam and the Traditional Javanese Religious Outlook
13. Patterns of Internal Organization of the Santri Community
Political-Religious Leadership
Political-Religious Activity
Political-Religious Organization
Conservative versus Modern: A Balanced Opposition
14. The Santri Educational System
Pondok: The Traditional Pattern
Langgar and Mosque: The Local Santri Community
Tarékat: Traditional Islamic Mysticism
Pondok to Sekolah: The Santri Educational System in Modjokuto
The Pondok Pattern in Modjokuto
Madrasah: The Conservative School in Modjokuto
The Modern Religious School in Modjokuto
Religion in the Public Schools in Modjokuto
15. The Administration of the Moslem Law: Islam and the State in Modjokuto
The General Organization of the Ministry of Religion
The Local Organization of the Ministry of Religion
Marriage and Divorce
Religious Foundations and the Pilgrimage
Religious Foundations and the Pilgrimage
Religious Propaganda and Village Religious Officials
The Ministry of Religion and the Santri Political Parties
The Islamic State: The Santri Approach to the Problem of Church and State
16. The Santri Ritual Pattern
The Prayers
The Friday Service
The Fast
Part Three: The "Prijaji" Variant
17. The Background and General Dimensions of Prijaji Belief and Etiquette
The Development of a "Great Tradition"
Gentry and Peasantry in Java
Basic Concepts in the Prijaji World-View
Prijaji versus Abangan: General Differences
Literati versus Intelligentsia
The General Dimensions of Prijaji Belief
The Role of Etiquette
Linguistic Etiquette
18. The Role of Classical Art
Wajang: The Shadow Play
Wajang Stories
Prijaji versus Abangan Views of the Wajang
Prijaji Interpretations of the Wajang
The Gamelan: Javanese Music
The Tembang: Javanese Poetry
The Djoged: Javanese Dance
Batik: Javanese Textile Dyeing
Classical Javanese Art: Summary
19. The Role of Popular Art
Popular Drama: Wajang Wong, Ketoprak, and Ludrug
Street Dancers: Kledek, Djaranan, and Djanggrung
The Tajuban: A Javanese Party
Contemporary Art
Orchestras and Popular Singers
Contemporary Literature, Drama, and Motion Pictures
Contemporary Art and the Emerging "Youth Culture"
20. Mysticism
The Theory of Mysticism
The Inner Connection between Happiness and Unhappiness
The Fundamental Religious Equation
The Search for Ultimate Enlightenment and "This-Worldly"Mysticism
Mystical Discipline
Metaphysical Psychology
The Teacher (Guru) -Student (Murid) Pattern
The Underlying Identity of Individuals and the Organic Theory of Social Organization
Religious Relativism
21. The Mystical Sects
Budi Setia
Kawruh Bedja
Ilmu Sedjati
Kawruh Kasunjatan
The Social Implications of the Mystical Sects
Part Four: Conclusion: Conflict and Integration
22. Conflict and Integration
Religion and Society in Modjokuto
Religion and Social Conflict
Ideological Conflicts
Class Conflicts
Political Conflicts
Psychological Factors
Religion and Social Integration
Traditionalism and the Inherited Common Culture
Nationalism and the Projection of a New Common Culture
Mixed Types and Marginal Groups: Social Structural Factors
Tolerance and Pluralistic Social Integration
The Holidays--Ceremonies of Social Integration and Conflict
National Holidays
Rijaja: The End of the Fast Holiday
Appendix: A Note on Methods of Work
Subject and Author Index
Index of Javanese and Indonesian Terms

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