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Phylogeny, Ecology, and Behavior

A Research Program in Comparative Biology

"The merits of this work are many. A rigorous integration of phylogenetic hypotheses into studies of adaptation, adaptive radiation, and coevolution is absolutely necessary and can change dramatically our collective ’gestalt’ about much in evolutionary biology. The authors advance and illustrate this thesis beautifully. The writing is often lucid, the examples are plentiful and diverse, and the juxtaposition of examples from different biological systems argues forcefully for the validity of the thesis. Many new insights are offered here, and the work is usually accessible to both the practiced phylogeneticist and the naive ecologist."—Joseph Travis, Florida State University

"[Phylogeny, Ecology, and Behavior] presents its arguments forcefully and cogently, with ample . . .support. Brooks and McLennan conclude as they began, with the comment that evolution is a result, not a process, and that it is the result of an interaction of a variety of processes, environmental and historical. Evolutionary explanations must consider all these components, else they are incomplete. As Darwin’s explanations of descent with modification integrated genealogical and ecological information, so must workers now incorporate historical and nonhistorical, and biological and nonbiological, processes in their evolutionary perspective."—Marvalee H. Wake, Bioscience

"This book is well-written and thought-provoking, and should be read by those of us who do not routinely turn to phylogenetic analysis when investigating adaptation, evolutionary ecology and co-evolution."—Mark R. MacNair, Journal of Natural History

441 pages | 345 line drawings, 48 tables | 6 x 9 | © 1991

Biological Sciences: Behavioral Biology, Biology--Systematics, Evolutionary Biology

Table of Contents



Part One: The Basic Issues

1 Setting the Stage
     The "Eclipse of History" in Ethology
     The "Eclipse of History" in Ecology
     A Revolution in Systematics
     The Reemergence of Macroevolution as an Evolutionary Phenomenon
     The Emergence of Historical Ecology

2 Tools of the Trade
        Groups of Organisms
        Relationships of Taxa
        Features of Organisms
     Hennig Argumentation: Building Trees
     Character Coding for Building Trees
        Multistate Transformation Series
        Polarization Arguments and Multistate Transformation Series
     Answers to Some Common Questions and Misconceptions

Part Two: Phylogeny and the Evolution of Diversity

3 Preamble to Speciation and Adaptation
        What is a Species?
        How Species Are Produced: Uncovering Patterns and Processes of Speciation
        The Frequency of Different Speciation Modes
        Macroevolution Trends in Diversity: Species Numbers

4 Speciation
     Assumptions of a Speciation Study
     Phylogenetic Patterns of Speciation
        Allopatric Speciation
        Parapatric and Alloparapatric Speciation
        Sympatric Speciation
        A Comment on Sympatric Speciation
     Some Sample Studies
     The Frequencies of Different Modes of Speciation
     Documenting the Influence of Microevolutionary Processes
     Macroevolutionary Trends in Diversity: Species Number
        Unusually Low Diversity Groups
        Unusually High Diversity Groups

5 Adaptation
     Character Optimization: How to Interpret Characters on a Phylogenic Tree
     Methodical Caveats for the Historical Ecologist
     Formulating the Question
     The Temporal Sequence of Evolutionary Change
     Evolutionary Association of Traits: Coadapted Trait Complexes within a Clade
     Convergent Adaptation
     Divergent Adaptation
     Discovering Constraint: Is the Study Finished?
     Adaptive Radiations
        Adaptive Radiations in Ecological Preferences
        Adaptive radiations in Life Cycle Patterns
        Adaptive Radiations and Species Richness
        A Last Look at Adaptive Radiations
     A Comment on Transformational Aspects of Macroevolution

Part Three: Phylogeny and the Evolution of Ecological Associations

6 Preamble to Cospeciation and Coadaptation
     A Broad Based Coevolutionary Paradigm
        Cospeciation in a Geographical Context: How Did the Species Come to Be in This Area?
        Cospeciation in an Ecological Context: How Did the Species Come to Be in This Association?
        How Are the Members of an Association Interacting with One Another?
        The Evolution of Closely Interacting Clades
        The Evolution of Interacting Biotas

7 Cospeciation
     Cospeciation in a Geographic Context: How Did the Species Come to Be in the Same Geographical Area?
        Basic Methodology
        Special Applications
        Case Studies
        Comments on Historical Biogeographic Studies
     Cospeciation among Ecological Associates: How Did these Particular Species Come to Be Associated with One Another?
        Historical Congruence: "Real" or Fortuitous?
        Do Related Groups Show Similar or Different Proportions or Cospeciation and Host Switching?
        Comments on Cospeciation in an Ecological Context

8 Coadaptation
     Coevolutionary Dynamics: How Are the Members of an Association Interacting with One Another?
        Allopatric Cospeciation
        Resource Tracking
        Evolutionary Arms Race
        Case Studies
     Coevolutionary and Evolutionary Specialization
        Resource Specificity
        Genetic Diversification
     Community Evolution: Composition and Structure of Multispecies
     Ecological Associations
        Preliminary Examples

9 Prospective: Mastering the Possibilities of Historical Ecology
     The Current Database
        The Historical Ecological Perspective on Diversity: Speciation and Extinction Rates
        Adaptation and Key Innovations
        The Historical Ecological Perspective on Interactions
        Summary of the Current Database
     Possibilities for Future Research
        Integrating Historical Ecology and Functional Morphology
        Integrating the Experimental and Phylogenetic Approaches: From Pattern to Process
        Adaptive Changes in Quantitative Traits: Integrating the Statistical and Phylogenetic Approaches
     Integrating Historical Ecology with General Evolutionary Theory
        The Two Biological Hierarchies
        Spatial and Temporal Scaling Effects
        The Hierarchy of Evolution: Looking through Windows of Time


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