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Image Makers

Advertising, Public Relations, and the Ethos of Advocacy

Talking dogs pitching ethnic food. Heart-tugging appeals for contributions. Recruitment calls for enlistment in the military. Tub-thumpers excoriating American society with over-the-top rhetoric. At every turn, Americans are exhorted to spend money, join organizations, rally to causes, or express outrage. Image Makers is a comprehensive analysis of modern advocacy-from commercials to public service ads to government propaganda-and its roots in advertising and public relations.

Robert Jackall and Janice M. Hirota explore the fashioning of the apparatus of advocacy through the stories of two organizations, the Committee on Public Information, which sold the Great War to the American public, and the Advertising Council, which since the Second World War has been the main coordinator of public service advertising. They then turn to the career of William Bernbach, the adman’s adman, who reinvented advertising and grappled creatively with the profound skepticism of a propaganda-weary midcentury public. Jackall and Hirota argue that the tools-in-trade and habits of mind of "image makers" have now migrated into every corner of modern society. Advocacy is now a vocation for many, and American society abounds as well with "technicians in moral outrage," including street-smart impresarios, feminist preachers, and bombastic talk-radio hosts.

The apparatus and ethos of advocacy give rise to endlessly shifting patterns of conflicting representations and claims, and in their midst Image Makers offers a clear and spirited understanding of advocacy in contemporary society and the quandaries it generates.

341 pages | 14 halftones | 6 x 9 | © 2000, 2003

Culture Studies

History: American History

Rhetoric and Communication

Table of Contents

1. Funhouse Mirrors
The Apparatus of Advocacy
2. Advertising the Great War
3. Public Relations for Advertising
The Ethos of Advocacy
4. Turning the World Upside Down
5. Advocacy as a Profession
6. Habits of Mind
7. Advocacy as a Vocation
The Discernment of Representations
8. Make-Believe Worlds

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