# Foundations of High-Energy Astrophysics

9780226855691

9780226855714

# Foundations of High-Energy Astrophysics

Written by one of today’s most highly respected astrophysicists,

The most thorough and engaging survey of high-energy astrophysics available today,

*Foundations of High-Energy Astrophysics*is an introduction to the mathematical and physical techniques used in the study of high-energy astrophysics. Here, Mario Vietri approaches the basics of high-energy astrophysics with an emphasis on underlying physical processes as opposed to a more mathematical approach. Alongside more traditional topics, Vietri presents new subjects increasingly considered crucial to understanding high-energy astrophysical sources, including the electrodynamics of cosmic sources, new developments in the theory of standard accretion disks,**and**the physics of coronae, thick disks, and accretion onto magnetized objects.The most thorough and engaging survey of high-energy astrophysics available today,

*Foundations of High-Energy Astrophysics*introduces the main physical processes relevant to the field in a rigorous yet accessible way, while paying careful attention to observational issues. Vietri’s book will quickly become a classic text for students and active researchers in astronomy and astrophysics. Those in adjoining fields will also find it a valuable addition to their personal libraries.568 pages | 49 line drawings | 6 x 9 | © 2008

Physical Sciences: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Experimental and Applied Physics, Theoretical Physics

## Reviews

## Table of Contents

**Preface**

**1 Hydrodynamics**

1.1 The Mass Conservation Equation

1.2 The Momentum Conservation Equation

1.3 The Energy Conservation Equation

1.4 Bernoulli’s Theorem

1.5 The Equations of Hydrodynamics in Conservative Form

1.6 Viscous Fluids

1.7 Small Perturbations

1.8 Discontinuity

1.8.1 Surfaces of Discontinuity

1.8.2 ShockWaves

1.8.3 Physical Interpretation of Shock Waves

1.8.4 Collisional and Noncollisional Shocks

1.8.5 Formation of a Shock

1.8.2 ShockWaves

1.8.3 Physical Interpretation of Shock Waves

1.8.4 Collisional and Noncollisional Shocks

1.8.5 Formation of a Shock

1.9 Self-similar Solutions

1.9.1 Self-similar Solutions of the Second Kind

1.10 Relativistic Hydrodynamics

1.10.1 Shock Waves in Relativistic Hydrodynamics

1.10.2 The Strong Explosion

1.10.2 The Strong Explosion

1.11 The De Laval Nozzle

1.12 Problems

2.1 Equations of Motion

1.12 Problems

**2 Magnetohydrodynamics and Magnetic****Fields**2.1 Equations of Motion

2.1.1 The Limit of Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics

2.1.2 Equations of Motion in a Conservative Form

2.1.2 Equations of Motion in a Conservative Form

2.2 The Force Exerted by the Magnetic Field

2.3 Magnetic Flux Freezing

2.4 Small Perturbations in a Homogeneous Medium

2.5 Stability of Tangential Discontinuities

2.6 Two-Temperature Fluids

2.7 Magnetic Buoyancy and Reconnection

2.3 Magnetic Flux Freezing

2.4 Small Perturbations in a Homogeneous Medium

2.5 Stability of Tangential Discontinuities

2.6 Two-Temperature Fluids

2.7 Magnetic Buoyancy and Reconnection

2.7.1 Magnetic Buoyancy

2.7.2 Reconnection

2.7.2 Reconnection

2.8 Shock Wave

2.9 Magnetic Fields in Astrophysics

2.9 Magnetic Fields in Astrophysics

2.9.1 Observations

2.9.2 Origin of Magnetic Fields

2.9.2 Origin of Magnetic Fields

2.10 Problems

3.1 Radiative Transport

**3 Radiative Processes**3.1 Radiative Transport

3.1.1 Radiation Transport

3.2 Low-Temperature Thermal Emission

3.3 Bremsstrahlung

3.4 Synchrotron

3.3 Bremsstrahlung

3.4 Synchrotron

3.4.1 Power Radiated by a Single Particle

3.4.2 The Spectrum of a Single Particle

3.4.3 The Spectrum of a Group of Nonthermal Particles

3.4.4 Quantum Corrections

3.4.5 Self-absorption

3.4.6 Cyclotron Lines

3.4.7 Processes in an Intense Magnetic Field

3.4.8 The Razin-Tsytovich Effect

3.4.2 The Spectrum of a Single Particle

3.4.3 The Spectrum of a Group of Nonthermal Particles

3.4.4 Quantum Corrections

3.4.5 Self-absorption

3.4.6 Cyclotron Lines

3.4.7 Processes in an Intense Magnetic Field

3.4.8 The Razin-Tsytovich Effect

3.5 Compton Processes

3.5.1 Physical Mechanism of the Inverse Compton

3.5.2 The Spectrum of Inverse Compton Processes

3.5.3 About the Compton Parameter

3.5.4 Self-synchro-Compton and Compton Limit

3.5.5 Compton Broadening

3.5.2 The Spectrum of Inverse Compton Processes

3.5.3 About the Compton Parameter

3.5.4 Self-synchro-Compton and Compton Limit

3.5.5 Compton Broadening

3.6 Relativistic Effects

3.6.1 Superluminal Motions

3.6.2 Emission Properties of Relativistic Sources

3.6.2 Emission Properties of Relativistic Sources

3.7 Pair Creation and Annihilation

3.8 Cosmological Attenuations

3.8 Cosmological Attenuations

3.8.1 Protons

3.8.2 Photons

3.8.2 Photons

3.9 Problems

4.1 The Classic Theory of Acceleration

**4 Nonthermal Particles**4.1 The Classic Theory of Acceleration

4.1.1 Acceleration

4.1.2 Injection

4.1.2 Injection

4.2 Constraints on the Maximum Energy

4.3 More Details in the Newtonian Limit

4.3 More Details in the Newtonian Limit

4.3.1 From the Vlasov Equation to the Convection-Scattering Equation

4.3.2 Scattering in the Angle of Motion in a Mediumat Rest

4.3.3 Scattering and Convection in a Mediumin Motion

4.3.2 Scattering in the Angle of Motion in a Mediumat Rest

4.3.3 Scattering and Convection in a Mediumin Motion

4.4 General Discussion

4.4.1 An Equation for

4.4.2 The Small Pitch Angle Scattering Limit

4.4.3 Distributions of Probability

4.4.4 The Particles’ Spectrum

4.4.5 The Equations for

4.4.6 Results

*f*4.4.2 The Small Pitch Angle Scattering Limit

4.4.3 Distributions of Probability

*P*u and*P*d4.4.4 The Particles’ Spectrum

4.4.5 The Equations for

*P*u and*P*d4.4.6 Results

4.5 The Unipolar Inductor

4.6 Problems

5.1 Accretion from Cold Matter

5.2 Accretion from Hot Matter

4.6 Problems

**5 Spherical Flows: Accretion and Explosion**5.1 Accretion from Cold Matter

5.2 Accretion from Hot Matter

5.2.1 The Critical Point

5.3 The Intermediate Case

5.4 Doubts about the Bondi Accretion Rate

5.5 The Eddington Luminosity

5.6 The Efficiency of Spherical Accretion

5.7 Explosive Motions

5.4 Doubts about the Bondi Accretion Rate

5.5 The Eddington Luminosity

5.6 The Efficiency of Spherical Accretion

5.7 Explosive Motions

5.7.1 Supernovae

5.7.2 Gamma Ray Bursts

5.7.2 Gamma Ray Bursts

5.8 Problems

6.1 Qualitative Introduction

6.2 Fundamental Equations

6.3 Special Relations

6.4 The

6.5 Equations for the Structure of Disks

6.6 The Standard Solution

6.7 The Origin of Torque

6.8 Disk Stability

**6 Disk Accretion I**6.1 Qualitative Introduction

6.2 Fundamental Equations

6.3 Special Relations

6.4 The

*α*Prescription6.5 Equations for the Structure of Disks

6.6 The Standard Solution

6.7 The Origin of Torque

6.8 Disk Stability

6.8.1 Time Scales

6.8.2 Instability

6.8.2 Instability

6.9 Lense-Thirring Precession

6.10 Problems

7.1 Other Disk Models

6.10 Problems

**7 Disk Accretion II**7.1 Other Disk Models

7.1.1 The Origin of Particles

7.1.2 Dynamic Peculiarities of Pair Plasmas

7.1.3 The Pair Plasma without Input of External Photons

7.1.4 The Pair Plasma with Input of External Photons

7.1.2 Dynamic Peculiarities of Pair Plasmas

7.1.3 The Pair Plasma without Input of External Photons

7.1.4 The Pair Plasma with Input of External Photons

7.2 Thick Accretion Disks

7.2.1 Some General Properties

7.2.2 The Inapplicability of the Eddington Limit

7.2.3 Polytropic Models

7.2.4 Properties of Thick Disks

7.2.2 The Inapplicability of the Eddington Limit

7.2.3 Polytropic Models

7.2.4 Properties of Thick Disks

7.3 Nondissipative Accretion Flows

7.4 Further Developments of the Theory

7.4 Further Developments of the Theory

7.4.1 General-Relativistic Corrections

7.4.2 The Fate of Angular Momentum at Large Radii

7.4.2 The Fate of Angular Momentum at Large Radii

7.5 Accretion Disks on Magnetized Objects

7.5.1 The Alfv´en Radius

7.5.2 Interaction between the Disk and the Magnetosphere

7.5.3 Accretion Columns

7.5.2 Interaction between the Disk and the Magnetosphere

7.5.3 Accretion Columns

7.6 Boundary Layers

7.7 Problems

8.1 The Gold-PaciniMechanism

8.2 The Magnetospheres Surrounding Pulsars

7.7 Problems

**8 Electrodynamics of Compact Objects 419**8.1 The Gold-PaciniMechanism

8.2 The Magnetospheres Surrounding Pulsars

8.2.1 Quasi-Neutral or Charge-Separated Plasma?

8.2.2 The Goldreich and Julian Magnetosphere

8.2.3 The Pulsar Equation

8.2.4 The Solution

8.2.5 The Transport of Angular Momentum

8.2.6 Discussion

8.2.2 The Goldreich and Julian Magnetosphere

8.2.3 The Pulsar Equation

8.2.4 The Solution

8.2.5 The Transport of Angular Momentum

8.2.6 Discussion

8.3 The Blandford-Znajek Model

8.3.1 The Magnetic Field of a Black Hole

8.3.2 The Black Hole Equation

8.3.3 The Transport of Energy and of Angular Momentum

8.3.4 A Qualitative Discussion

8.3.5 A Simplified Discussion of Total Energetics

8.3.2 The Black Hole Equation

8.3.3 The Transport of Energy and of Angular Momentum

8.3.4 A Qualitative Discussion

8.3.5 A Simplified Discussion of Total Energetics

8.4 The Generation of Charges

8.5 Disk-Jet Coupling

8.5 Disk-Jet Coupling

8.5.1 The Lovelace-Blandford Model

8.5.2 A Special Solution

8.5.3 Discussion

8.5.4 A Model Including Inertial Effects

8.5.5 A Special Solution

8.5.6 Results

8.5.7 A Brief Summary

8.5.2 A Special Solution

8.5.3 Discussion

8.5.4 A Model Including Inertial Effects

8.5.5 A Special Solution

8.5.6 Results

8.5.7 A Brief Summary

8.6 Problems

B.1 Problem

C.1 Vector Identities

C.2 Cylindrical Coordinates

C.3 Spherical Coordinates

**Appendix****A Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves****B Orbits Around Black Holes**B.1 Problem

**C Useful Formulae**C.1 Vector Identities

C.2 Cylindrical Coordinates

C.3 Spherical Coordinates

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