Cloth $75.00 ISBN: 9780226113852 Published April 2014
Paper $25.00 ISBN: 9780226113999 Published April 2014
E-book $7.00 to $25.00 About E-books ISBN: 9780226114040 Published April 2014

Pulled Over

How Police Stops Define Race and Citizenship

Charles R. Epp, Steven Maynard-Moody, and Donald P. Haider-Markel

Charles R. Epp, Steven Maynard-Moody, and Donald P. Haider-Markel

272 pages | 24 line drawings, 13 tables | 6 x 9 | © 2014
Cloth $75.00 ISBN: 9780226113852 Published April 2014
Paper $25.00 ISBN: 9780226113999 Published April 2014
E-book $7.00 to $25.00 About E-books ISBN: 9780226114040 Published April 2014
In sheer numbers, no form of government control comes close to the police stop. Each year, twelve percent of drivers in the United States are stopped by the police, and the figure is almost double among racial minorities. Police stops are among the most recognizable and frequently criticized incidences of racial profiling, but, while numerous studies have shown that minorities are pulled over at higher rates, none have examined how police stops have come to be both encouraged and institutionalized.

Pulled Over deftly traces the strange history of the investigatory police stop, from its discredited beginning as “aggressive patrolling” to its current status as accepted institutional practice. Drawing on the richest study of police stops to date, the authors show that who is stopped and how they are treated convey powerful messages about citizenship and racial disparity in the United States. For African Americans, for instance, the experience of investigatory stops erodes the perceived legitimacy of police stops and of the police generally, leading to decreased trust in the police and less willingness to solicit police assistance or to self-censor in terms of clothing or where they drive. This holds true even when police are courteous and respectful throughout the encounters and follow seemingly colorblind institutional protocols. With a growing push in recent years to use local police in immigration efforts, Hispanics stand poised to share African Americans’ long experience of investigative stops.
 
In a country that celebrates democracy and racial equality, investigatory stops have a profound and deleterious effect on African American and other minority communities that merits serious reconsideration. Pulled Over offers practical recommendations on how reforms can protect the rights of citizens and still effectively combat crime.
Doris Marie Provine, Arizona State University
Pulled Over succeeds in providing convincing evidence—the most exhaustive to date—demonstrating how pernicious racism can be at an institutional level without anyone specifically intending that result and with the intention perhaps running in the opposite direction. This is significant research on a fundamental issue presented in a clear, exhaustive manner, and it takes our knowledge of policing a big step further, offering in the process a clear prescription for reform. The book should be of interest to everyone concerned about the way American institutions perpetuate racism.”
Tom R. Tyler, Yale Law School
“This timely volume uses a multifaceted empirical analysis which focuses on street stop experiences among white and minority respondents to examine a central and continuing issue within contemporary American policing. Combining a careful historical exploration of police policies and practices with the results of surveys and in-person interviews, Epp, Maynard-Moody, and Haider-Markel offer a sophisticated and illuminating examination of the experience of police stops. Their efforts identify an important distinction between traffic and investigatory stops and locate race-based problems with the latter type of experience. Polite and respectful police demeanor, while to some extent palliative, cannot assuage the damaging effects of the widespread and systematic use of this policing technique on the minority community. This is a very good read and a compelling inquiry into the impact of police actions on white and minority motorists."
Jeffrey A. Fagan, Isidor and Seville Sulzbacher Professor of Law, Columbia Law School
“A searing portrayal of the everyday indignities borne by African Americans in their routine encounters with the police on the nation’s highway and streets. The authors expose the willful racial blindsight of police and the courts to the evolution of the ‘investigatory stop’ from its modest role in fighting crime to a sharp-edged weapon that corrodes the citizenship and belonging of African Americans and Latinos. The harrowing narratives and careful statistical analysis leave little doubt that police stops on the highways are racially tinged with disrespect for citizens while signaling to them and us that minority drivers have little power or prospects for equal treatment before the law. Pulled Over shines light on the institutional norms where there is leverage for reform through respectful and lawful policing.”
Joe Soss, University of Minnesota
“In recent decades, investigatory police stops have become a mainstay of American law enforcement. To my mind, Pulled Over is the definitive account of this development, but it is also far more than that. Epp, Maynard-Moody, and Haider-Markel have produced a masterly study of how state authority and citizenship are organized, racialized, and experienced in the United States today. I recommend the book most of all to those who’ve grown tired of stale debates about whether the targeted policing of young black men is “racist” or “rational.” In these pages, you will find a richer perspective informed by careful statistical analysis and stories from both sides of the police stop. You will also find prose that is a pleasure to read and compelling reasons to believe that we can and must do better.”
Contents
List of Tables

List of Figures

List of Narratives

Preface and Acknowledgments

Chapter 1. “I Felt Violated”

Chapter 2. Looking Beyond the License Plate

Chapter 3. The Decision to Stop a Driver

Chapter 4. Experiences during the Stop

Chapter 5. How Investigatory Intrusions Are Deliberately Planned (and Racially Based)

Chapter 6. Evaluating the Stop: Looking Beyond Official Politeness

Chapter 7. The Broader Lessons (and Harms) of Police Stops

Chapter 8. Toward Racial Justice in Police Stops

Append

Notes

Bibliography

Index
For more information, or to order this book, please visit http://www.press.uchicago.edu
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