Living in the Tenth Century

Mentalities and Social Orders

Heinrich Fichtenau

Living in the Tenth Century
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Heinrich Fichtenau

Translated by Patrick J. Geary
494 pages | 6 x 9 | © 1991
Paper $40.00 ISBN: 9780226246215 Published June 1993
"Fichtenau delivers a fascinating view of tenth-century Europe on the eve of the second millenium. He writes this hoping we, on the eve of the third millennium, will take time also to look at who we are and at our world. . . . This engaging book lucidly carries the reader through an amazing amount of material. Medieval scholars will find it resourceful and challenging; the nonscholar will find it fascinating and enlightening."—A. L. Kolp, Choice

"Living in the Tenth Century resembles an anthropological field study more than a conventional historical monograph, and represents a far more ambitious attempt to see behind the surface of avowals and events than others have seriously attempted even for much more voluminously documented periods. . . . It is remarkably rich and readable."—R.I. Moore, Times Higher Education Supplement

"Fichtenau offers a magnificent survey of all the main spheres of life: the social order, the rural economy, schooling and religious belief and practice in both the secular and monastic church. His command, especially of the narrative sources, their fine nuances of attitude emotion and underlying norms, is masterly and he employs them here with all the sensitiveness and feel for the subject that have always been the hallmarks of his work."—Karl Leyser, Francia

Contents
Translator's Foreword
Introduction
I. Ordo
1. Order as Rank Order
Ordo and Ordines
Ranking of Cities and Churches
Ecclesiastical Disputes over Ranking
Apostolicity and Ecclesiastical Precedence
The Abbot Primate
Seating Arrangements at Religious Assemblies
Monastic Rank Orders
Ranking in the Secular Sphere
2. Social Gestures, an Aspect of "Custom"
Custom and Symbols
Custom and Tradition
Specific Gestures: Favor and Disgrace
Humiliation
The Feudal Kiss and the Kiss of Peace
Gifts and Praise of the Giver
Mourning
Penance
Gestures with Cap, Staff, Scepter, and Lance
Gestures with Ecclesiastical Insignia
3. Representation as Evidence of Status
Reception
Homage and Obligatory Processions
Retinues
Banquets
Table Manners
Secular Marks of Status: Clothes, Jewelry, Weapons, Horses
Ecclesiastical Marks of Status
Cultic Representation
II. Familia
4. Family and Clan
Extended Family versus Nuclear Family
Cognatio
Matrimonial Politics
Prohibited Degrees
5. Patriarchal Lordship
Familia and Family
The House and Its Governor
The Wife in the House
Varieties of Marriage
Devaluation of Women
The Wife's Actual Status
Sons
Clerical Marriage and Children
6. The Familial Model
The Monastic Familia
Families within the Familia
The Courtly Familia
Contraternities
Spiritual Kinship
Familial Forms of Hierarchical Thought
III. Nobilitas
7. The Noble
Nobel and Nobilis
The Essence of Nobility
The Honor: Office, Land, People
Pedigree
Spiritual Cares
Fidelity, Vassalage, Feudalism
8. The King
Kingship and Nobility
Sacred Kingship
Administering the Kingdom
The Emperor
Qualities of the Ruler
The King at War
Advisers
The Queen
9. The Bishop
Origin and Kindred
Familial Politics and Family-based Government
Episcopal Appointments
The Bishop as Lord
Secular Activities within the City
Secular Activities in Feudal and Royal Service
The Armed Bishop
Pastoral Duties
Public Dying
10. Worldly Clerics
Seculars
The Cathedral Chapter
Canons and Canonesses
Canons
Cononesses
Monasticism and the Laity
Lay Abbots, Feudalism, Advocacy
Warfare
Abbot and Bishop
IV. Religio
11. Hermits and Reformers
The Eremitic Tradition
Sanctification
Monastic Reform
Reformers and Conservatives
Ritualism
12. Monastic Life
Group Formation: Nutriti and Conversi
Priest Monks and Criminals
Monasteries Great and Small
Monastic Buildings: The Role of Fire and Light
The Cloister and the Outside World
Contemplation and Prayer
Work
Monastic Fare
13. Education and School in the Monastery
The Purpose of Education
Ancient and Modern Patterns
Procuring Books
The Heritage of Classical Education
Pride in Knowledge
Wandering Scholars
The Liberal Arts
V. Vulgus
14. Popular Beliefs
Inbelle vulgus and vulgus indoctum
Religious Instruction of the Peasantry
Disbelief and Superstition
God and Divine Judgments
The Devil and Demons
Gods and Spirits
Natural Phenomena
White and Black Magic
Saints and Relics
15. Peasant Existence
Domestic Animals
Farm Implements
Pasture and Forest
Farming: Grain, Wine, and Legumes
Large Estates and Small Landholdings
Incastellamento
Castellanies in France
Peasantry and Castles in Germany
16. Stratification and Mobility
Free and Unfree Peasantry
Tenants and the Partially Free
The Poor
Servants and Slaves
Social Advancement
VI. Confusio
17. Disorders and Public Coercion
Laments over General Disorder
Emotionality and Panic
Conflicting Norms
Secular Means of Coercion
Excommunication, Anathema, Interdict
Anticlericalism, Areligiosity
The Search for Faith: Judaizers and Heretics
18. Lies and Deceit
Literary Truth and Fiction
Cunning
Loyalty and Disloyalty
Oath Breaking and Perjury
Deceit and the Family
19. Illegitimate Power
War and Feud
Means of Repression
Homicide
Robbers and So-Called Robbers
The Peace of God
Epilogue: A Look into the Future of the Past
Bibliography
Primary Sources
Secondary Sources
Sources by Chapter
Index
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