Console and Classify
The French Psychiatric Profession in the Nineteenth Century
"Goldstein has raised our understanding of the politics of psychiatric professionalization on to a new plane."—Roy Porter, Times Higher Education Supplement
"[A]n historiographical tour de force, quite simply the most insightful work on the subject in English or any other language. . . . [A] work of distinctive originality. . . . It is written with lucidity and elegance, even a certain confident scholarly panache, that make it a pleasure to read."—Toby Gelfand, Social History
"Exhaustively researched, elegantly written, and persuasively argued, Console and Classify is an excellent example of the . . . sociologically informed intellectual history, stimulated by Kuhn and Foucault."—Robert Alun Jones, American Journal of Sociology
List of abbreviations
1. "Profession" in context
The corporate model
The statist model
The laissez-faire model
2. Toward psychiatry
The bureaucracy: health police of the insane
General medical theory: medicine as "anthropology"
3. The transformation of charlatanism, or the moral treatment
Philippe Pinel: a medical career in political context
Pinel and the "concierges": the origins of the moral treatment
What was the moral treatment?
"Scientizing" the treatment
A therapy for the Revolution
4. The politics of patronage
The Pinel circle
The Esquirol circle
The dynamics of recruitment: specialization and the "doctor glut"
The initial definition of the disease
Professional ramifications (I): charting "mental tendencies"
Professional ramifications (II): the emergence of forensic psychiatry
A boundary dispute with the legal profession
The elusive insanity: its partisans and its varieties
The politicization of the monomania doctrine
The medical defense of monomania and the self-defense of psychiatric specialization
The decline of monomania
6. Religious roots and rivals
A religious mission to the insane
The moral treatment as religious consolation
The anticlerical current in early médecine mentale
The collaborative possibility
7. Choosing philosophical sides
The philosophical choice
Médecine mentale and "physiology"
The inroads of spiritualism
Practical implications of philosophical positions
Some comparative remarks
8. The Law of 1838 and the asylum system
Lunacy legislation and the constitutional monarchy
The obstacle of interdiction and the theory of isolation
The government's bill: an exercise in "political medicine"
The establishment of a nationwide asylum system
Assessing the clerical "threat"
9. Hysteria, anticlerical politics, and the view beyond the asylum
The hysteria diagnosis and the epidemiology of hysteria
The appropriation of the demi-fou
A profession's progress, 1838-1876
Shifting political configurations, 1838-1876
The anticlerical partnership