North by 2020

Perspectives on Alaska’s Changing Social-Ecological Systems

Edited by Amy Lauren Lovecraft and Hajo Eicken

North by 2020

Edited by Amy Lauren Lovecraft and Hajo Eicken

Distributed for University of Alaska Press

736 pages | illustrated in color throughout | 7 x 10 | © 2011
Paper $70.00 ISBN: 9781602231429 Published November 2011
E-book $7.00 to $70.00 ISBN: 9781602231436 Published November 2011

Originating from a series of workshops held at the Alaska Forum of the Fourth International Polar Year, this interdisciplinary volume addresses a host of current concerns regarding the ecology and rapid transformation of the arctic. Concentrating on the most important linked social-ecological systems, including fresh water, marine resources, and oil and gas development, this volume explores opportunities for sustainable development from a variety of perspectives, among them social sciences, natural and applied sciences, and the arts. Individual chapters highlight expressions of climate change in dance, music, and film, as well as from an indigenous knowledge–based perspective.



Section 1: A Holistic Approach for a Changing North
Section Editors: Amy Lauren Lovecraft and Hajo Eicken
1.1 Introduction 
      Amy Lauren Lovecraft
1.2 Transdisciplinary Collaboration in the Fourth International Polar Year: Connecting Studies of Arctic Change across the Sciences and the Arts
      Amy Lauren Lovecraft and Hajo Eicken
1.3 Scenarios as a Tool to Understand and Respond to Change
      John E. Walsh, Marc Mueller-Stoffels, and Peter H. Larsen
1.4 Contextualizing Alaska’s Climate Change from Global to Local Scales: The Boreal Forest, People, and Wildfire
      F. Stuart Chapin III and Amy Lauren Lovecraft
Section 2: Indigenous Knowledge, Climate Change, and Sustainability
Section Editors: Ray Barnhardt and Pia M. Kohler
2.1 Introduction
      Ray Barnhardt
2.2 The Anchorage Declaration
      Submitted by Patricia Cochran
2.3 My Place, My Identity
      Angayuqaq Oscar Kawagley
      Editors’ Note by Ray Barnhardt and Pia M. Kohler
2.4 A Changing Sense of Place: Climate and Native Well-Being
      Steven R. Becker
2.5 Values of Nushagak Bay: Past, Present, and Future
      Todd Radenbaugh and Sarah Wingert Pederson
2.6 Food Systems, Environmental Change, and Community Needs in Rural Alaska
      S. Craig Gerlach, Philip A. Loring, Amy Turner, and David E. Atkinson
2.7 Indigenous Knowledge and Global Environmental Politics: Biodiversity, POPs, and Climate
      Pia M. Kohler
2.8 Indigenous Contributions to Sustainability
      Ray Barnhardt
2.9 Climate Change and Creative Expression 
      Mary Beth Leigh, Krista Katalenich, Cynthia Hardy, and Pia M. Kohler
Section 3: Alaska’s Freshwater Resources
Section Editors: Amy Tidwell and Dan White
3.1 Introduction
      Amy Tidwell and Dan White
3.2 Alaska Freshwater Policy Development since Statehood
      Jedediah Smith
3.3 The State of Water Science
      Jonathan Pundsack, Dan White, Jessie Cherry, and Amy Tidwell
3.4 The Role of Fresh Water in Alaska’s Communities
      Andrew Kliskey and Lilian Alessa
3.5 Planning for Change
      Amy Tidwell, Dan White, and Andrew Kliskey
Section 4: The Arctic Coastal Margin
Section Editors: David E. Atkinson and Peter Schweitzer
4.1 Introduction 
      David E. Atkinson, Peter Schweitzer, and Orson Smith
4.2 The Physical Environment of Alaska’s Coasts
      David E. Atkinson
4.3 Humans in the Coastal Zone of the Circumpolar North
      Peter Schweitzer
4.4 Case 1: Newtok, the First Village in Alaska to Relocate Due to Climate Change
      Robin Bronen
4.5 Case 2: Flood Waters, Politics, and Relocating Home: One Story of Shishmaref, Alaska
      Elizabeth Marino
4.6 Case 3: Finding Ways to Move: The Challenges of Relocation in Kivalina, Northwest Alaska
      Patrick Durrer and Enoch Adams Jr.
4.7 Case 4: Current Situations and Future Possibilities: Issues of Coastal Erosion in Kaktovik, Alaska
      Elizabeth Mikow
4.8 Case Studies: Summary, Conclusions, and Prospects
      Peter Schweitzer
4.9 The Arctic Coastal System: An Interplay of Components Human, Industrial, and Natural
      David E. Atkinson, Peter Schweitzer, Orson Smith, and Lisbet Norris
Section5: Management of Living Marine Resources
Section Editor: Keith R. Criddle
5.1 Introduction
      Keith R. Criddle
5.2 Marine Fisheries off Alaska
      Keith R. Criddle, Diana Evans, and Diana Stram
5.3 Climate Change Brings Uncertain Future for Subarctic Marine Ecosystems and Fisheries
      Franz J. Mueter, Elizabeth C. Siddon and George L. Hunt Jr.
5.4 Conservation of Marine Mammals in Alaska: The Value of Policy Histories for Understanding Contemporary Change
      Chanda Meek
5.5 Addressing Rural Livelihood and Community Well-Being in Alaska’s Fisheries
      Courney Carothers
5.6 Tracking Changes in Coastal-Community Subsistence to Improve Understanding of Arctic Climate Change
     Martin D. Robards, Hajo Eicken, and F. Stuart Chapin III
Section 6:Marine Infrastructure and Transportation
Section Editor: Andrew Metzger
6.1 Introduction
      Andrew Metzger
6.2 A Historical Perspective on the United States Coast Guard Presence in the Arctic
      Lisa Ragone
6.3 The Arctic: A Growing Search-and-Rescue Challenge
      Rick Button and Amber S. Ward
6.4 Traffic Management in the Bering Strait
      Maureen Johnson
6.5 The Effect of Unregulated Ship Emissions on Aerosol and Sulfur Dioxide Concentrations in Southwestern Alaska
      Nicole Mölders, Stacy E. Porter, Trang T. Tran, Catherine F. Cahill, Jeremy Mathis,
      and Gregory B. Newby
6.6 Strengthening Institutions for Stakeholder Involvement and Ecosystem-Based Management in the US Arctic Offshore
      Sharman Haley, Laura Chartier, Glenn Gray, Chanda Meek, Jim Powell, Andrew A. Rosenberg,
      and Jonathan Rosenberg
6.7 Futures of Arctic Marine Transport 2030: An Explorative Scenario Approach
      Marc Mueller-Stoffels and Hajo Eicken
Section 7:Coastal and Offshore Oil and Gas Development: Balancing Interests and Reducing Risks Through Collaboration and Information Exchange
Section Editors: Sharman Haley and Hajo Eicken
7.1 Introduction
      Sharman Haley and Hajo Eicken
7.2 Analysis of the Arctic Council Oil and Gas Assessment, Oil and Gas Guidelines, and the Prospective Role of the Arctic Council
      Dennis K. Thurston
7.3 The Need for International Cooperation in Offshore Oil and Gas
      Anatoly Zolotukhin
7.4 Technological Frontiers for Offshore Oil and Gas 
     Walter Spring, Victoria A. Broje, Jeremy R. Dean, Michael L. Eckstein, Elio J. Gonzalez Domingo, 
       Mark C. Hansen, Jerod M. Kendrick, Jochen Marwede, John H. Pelletier, Robert E. Raye,
      Allan M. Reece, Robert L. Rosenbladt, David G. Taylor, Cody C. Teff, Melanie M. Totten, and
      John M. Ward. Corresponding Author: Mitchell M. Winkler
7.5 The Role of Local and Indigenous Knowledge in Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Development, Environmental Hazard Mitigation, and Emergency Response
      Hajo Eicken, Liesel A. Ritchie, and Ashly Barlau
7.6 Local Perspectives on the Future of Offshore Oil and Gas in Northern Alaska
      Richard Glenn, Edward Itta, and Thomas Napageak Jr. Edited by Matthew Klick
Section 8: Expressions of Climate Change in the Arts
Section Editor: Maya Salganek
8.1 Introduction
      Maya Salganek
8.2 Global Warming and Art
      John Luther Adams
8.3 Dry Ice: Artists and the Landscape
      Julie Decker
8.4 Social Climate Change of Alutiiq Dance Forms
      Lena Snow Amason-Berns
8.5 Seeing Change: A Filmmaker’s Approach to Climate Change
      Maya Salganek
8.6 The Syntax of Snow: Musical Ecoacoustics of a Changing Arctic
      Matthew Burtner
8.7 Climate Change as Telematic Art
      Scott Deal
8.8 A Long-View Perspective on Collaborative Filmmaking
      Leonard Kamerling
Section 9: Planning for Northern Futures: Lessons from Social-Ecological Change in the Alaska Region
      Hajo Eicken and Amy Lauren Lovecraft

Index of Authors and Coauthors

Review Quotes
Henry Huntington, Huntington Consulting, Eagle River, AK
“The essays are accessible and engaging, providing a comprehensive introduction to many of the challenges facing Alaska today. Even for those of us who consider ourselves engaged in such research and such discussions and debates, North by 2020 offers a refresher and an update of what is happening in fisheries, oil and gas, indigenous knowledge, and more.”
Grete K. Hovelsrud, Nordland Research Institute
“An ambitious and successful undertaking. . . . The book takes a holistic approach, and pulls together an impressive array of scientists and authors, with a broad range of background, expertise, scientific disciplines and approaches to the study and understanding of people and nature.”
David W. Norton | Arctic
“Ambitious. . . . [North by 2020] captures the state of the art in the rapidly developing trans-discipli­nary enterprise of understanding, interpreting, and iden­tifying adaptive options for social-ecological systems at Alaska’s high latitudes.”
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