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Distributed for University of British Columbia Press

Hard Work Conquers All

Building the Finnish Community in Canada

Distributed for University of British Columbia Press

Hard Work Conquers All

Building the Finnish Community in Canada

Above the entrance to the Finnish Labour Temple in Thunder Bay is the motto labor omnia vincit – “hard work conquers all” – reflecting the dedication of the Finnish community in Canada. Hard Work Conquers All examines Finnish community building in Canada during the twentieth century. Waves of immigrants imbued the relationship between people, homeland, and host country with the politics, ideologies, and cultural expressions of their time. This collection of essays explores the cultural identities of Finnish Canadians, their ties to Finland, intergenerational cultural transfer, and the community’s connections with socialism and labour movements. It offers new interpretations of the influence of Finnish immigration on Canada.

252 pages


Table of Contents

Introduction: Writing about Finnish Canadian Experiences / Michel S. Beaulieu, David K. Ratz, and Ronald N. Harpelle

1 The Finnish Contribution to Early Canadian Socialist Organizations / Michel S. Beaulieu

2 Matti Kurikka and the Utopian Socialist Settlement of Sointula, British Columbia / J. Donald Wilson

3 Finnish Canadian Soldiers in the First World War / David K. Ratz

4 Wrestling, Immigration, and Working-Class Culture: The Finns of the Thunder Bay District before 1939 / C. Nathan Hatton

5 “I Won’t Be a Slave!”: Finnish Domestics in Canada, 1911–30 / Varpu Lindström

6 “Dear Jussi-Setä”: Generation, Language, and Community in the Youth Page of Vapaus, 1945–60 / Tanya Tuohimaa

7 Terveisiä: A Century of Finnish Immigrant Letters from Canada / Samira Saramo

8 Cookbooks for Upstairs: Ethnicity, Class, and Gender in Perspective / Hanna Snellman

9 From Bush to Bay Street: The Finnish Community of Thunder Bay as Memories, Narratives, and Experiences / Antti Häkkinen

Afterword / Michel S. Beaulieu, David K. Ratz, and Ronald N. Harpelle

Index

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