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Maternal Justice

Miriam Van Waters and the Female Reform Tradition

Celebrated prison reformer Miriam Van Waters made history for her sensational battle to retain the superintendency of the Massachusetts Reformatory for Women in 1949. Maternal Justice provides a compelling biography of this early lesbian activist by moving beyond the controversy to tell the story of a remarkable woman whose success rested upon the power of her own charismatic leadership.

Estelle B. Freedman draws from Van Waters’s diaries, letters, and personal papers to recreate her complex personal life, unveiling the disparity between Van Waters’s public persona and her agonized private soul. With the power and elegance of a novel, Maternal Justice illuminates this historical context, casting light on the social welfare tradition, on women’s history, on the American feminist movement, and on the history of sexuality.

"Maternal Justice is as much a work of history as it is biography, bringing to life not only a remarkable woman but also the complex political and social milieu within which she worked and lived."—Kelleher Jewett, The Nation

"This sympathetic biography reclaims Van Waters for history."—Publishers Weekly

"The Van Waters legacy, as Freedman gracefully presents, is that she cared about the lives of women behind bars. It is a strikingly unfashionable sentiment today."—Jane Meredith Adams, San Francisco Chronicle Book Review, Editor’s Recommended Selection

"This finely crafted biography is both an engrossing read and a richly complicated account of a reformer whose work . . . bridged the eras of voluntarist charitable activism and professional social service."—Sherri Broder, Women’s Review of Books

"This is a sympathetic, highly personal biography, revealing of both the author’s responses to her subject’s life and, in considerable detail, Van Waters’s family traumas, illnesses, and love affairs."—Elizabeth Israels Perry, Journal of American History

476 pages | 42 halftones | 6 x 9 | © 1996

Biography and Letters

Gay and Lesbian Studies

History: American History

Women's Studies

Table of Contents

Part I: 1887-1917
1. The Family Legacy
2. An Educated Woman
3. A Graduate Degree in Life
4. A New Career
Part II: 1917-1932
5. Surrogate Mother
6. A Colony of Reformers
7. In Conflict
8. In Love with a Child
9. Most Precious Possession
Part III: 1932-1949
10. Building the Framingham Symphony
11. Mother of Us All
12. Guardian Angel
13. Storm Center in Framingham
14. The Van Waters Case
15. In the Matter of the Removal of Dr. Miriam Van Waters
Part IV: 1949-1974
16. End of an Era
17. Lifeline
Epilogue: The Superintendent’s House


Western Association of Women Historians: Sierra Book Prize

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