Paper $54.50 ISBN: 9789053567920 Published May 2006 For sale only in the United States, its dependencies, the Philippines, and Canada

Soldiers and Civil Power

Supporting or Substituting Civil Authorities in Modern Peace Operations

Thijs W. Brocades Zaalberg

Soldiers and Civil Power
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Thijs W. Brocades Zaalberg

Distributed for Amsterdam University Press

496 pages | 25 halftones | 6-1/4 x 9-1/2 | © 2006
Paper $54.50 ISBN: 9789053567920 Published May 2006 For sale only in the United States, its dependencies, the Philippines, and Canada
Since the Cold War, peace operations have become the core focus of many Western armed forces. In these operations, the division between civil and military responsibilities often rapidly blurs.
 
 Among policy makers and in military circles, a debate has erupted regarding the scope of the military in stabilizing and reconstructing war torn societies. Should soldiers, who primarily prepare for combat duties, observe a strict segregation between the "military sphere" and the "civilian sphere" or become involved in "nation building"? Should soldiers be allowed to venture into the murky arena of public security, civil administration, humanitarian relief, and political and social reconstruction? 
 
In Soldiers and Civil Power, Thijs Brocades Zaalberg draws on military records and in-depth interviews with key players to examine international operations in the 1990's in Cambodia, Somalia, Bosnia, and Kosovo. Focusing his historical analysis on the experiences of various battalions in the field, he reveals large gaps between this tactical level of operations, political-strategic decision making and military doctrine. By comparing peace operations to examples of counterinsurgency operations in the colonial era and military governance in World War II, he exposes the controversial, but inescapable role of the Western military in supporting and even substituting civil authorities during military interventions.
 
At a time when US forces and its allies struggle to restore order in Iraq and Afghanistan, Brocades Zaalberg’s in-depth study is an invaluable resource not only for military historians, but anyone interested in the evolving global mission of armed forces in the twenty-first century.
Contents
Acknowledgements
 
Introduction
 
Part I
THE CIVIL-MILITARY INTERFACE
in Twentieth-Century Military Operations
 
1.  Substituting the Civil Power:  Civil Affairs and Military Government in World War II
The Operational Primacy of Civil Affairs
Integrating or Segregating Civil Affairs
Military Government Moves Center Stage
Effects of Military Pragmatism
Conclusion
 
2.  Supporting the Civil Power:  Counterinsurgency and the Return to Conventional Warfare
Imperial Policing
Malaya:  Integrating the Civil and Military Spheres
Vietnam:  Lessons Unlearned
The Return to 'Ordinary Soldiering'
Towards Civil-Military Peace Operations
 
Part II
COMPLEX PEACEKEEPING
The United Nations in Cambodia
 
3.  Making Sense of the Mission:  UNTAC's Military and Civil Mandates
Peacekeepers in the Post-Cold War Disorder
The Paris Peace Agreement
The Unworkable Military Mandate
Segregated Missions
Winning the Hearts and Minds
 
4.  The Slippery Slope towards Public Security:  Soldiers and Policemen in Cambodia
Police Monitors
Banditry in Banteay Manchey
Stretching the Mandate
Changing the Guard
 
5.  'Sanderson's Coup':  Militarized Elections amidst Escalating Violence
Flexible Response
'Military Coup'
Protecting the Elections
Peace at the Ballot
Successes, Failures and Lessons
Peace Operations after UNTAC
 
PART III
AMERICAN INTERVENTIONS
Segregating Civil and Military Spheres
 
6.  'Peacekeeping' in a Power Vacuum:  The Reluctant American Occupation of Somalia
Hobbesian Anarchy
Limits of US Military Intervention
Cosmetic Success
Attitude Adjustment
The Public Security Vacuum
Benevolent 'Mission Creep'
 
7.  Securing and Governing Baidoa:  Australia's Living Laboratory in Somalia
The Legacy of the Marines
Urban Security Operations
Two Schools of Thought
Counterinsurgency Reflex
The Military Governor of Baidoa
Conclusion
 
8.  One Step Forward, Two Steps Back:  Widening the Civil-Military Gap in Bosnia
The Dayton Accord
The Public Security Gap
Reinterpreting the Military Mandate
the:  The Fig Leaf for teh Gap
Conclusion
 
PART IV
KOSOVO
Military Government by Default
 
9.  The Kosovo Force:  Entering the Wasteland
Stepping into the Void
The Mandate
Task Force Orahovac
Taming the Kosovo Liberation Army
 
10.  The Kosovar Constabulary:  The Race between Order and Disorder
'Anarchy, or Something Not Far from It'
Policing without Instructions
Controlling the Streets of Orahovac
Different Approaches
Makeshift Police
The Justice Triangle
 
11.  Peacekeepers in Pursuit of Justice:  Protecting and Prosecuting Serbs in Orahovac
Russians
Beleaguered Serbs
War Crimes
Arrests
Controversy
 
12.  The UCK's Silent coup:  KFOR in the Civil Administrative Vacuum
Local Administration
Struggle for Local Control
Public Services
 
13.  The Tools at Hand:  Civil-Military Cooperation in Kosovo
Ad Hoc Civil-Military Cooperation
The Complex Civil-Military Playing Field
Unity of Effort
 
Conclusion
Primary Sources and Bibliography
Glossary and Military Terminology
Notes
Index
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