Necessity, Cause and Blame
Perspectives on Aristotle's Theory
“Necessity, Cause and Blame would be counted by all as one of Sorabji’s finest. The book is essential for philosophers—both specialists on the Greeks and modern thinkers about free will—and also compelling for non-specialists.”—Martha Nussbaum
“Original and important . . . The book relates Aristotle’s discussions to both the contemporary debates on determinism and causation and the ancient ones. It is especially detailed on Stoic arguments about necessity . . . and on the social and legal background to Aristotle’s thought.”—Choice
“It is difficult to convey the extraordinary richness of this book. . . . A Greekless philosopher could read it with pleasure . . . At the same time, its learning and scholarship are enormous.”—G. E. M. Anscombe, Times Literary Supplement
Part I: Necessity and Cause
1. Do Coincidences have Causes?
2. Is Cause related to Necessitation or to Explanation?
3. Necessitation and Law in Ancient Accounts of Cause and Explanation
4. Stoic Embarrassment over Necessity
Part II: Necessity and Time
5. Tomorrow's Sea Battle: an argument from past truth
6. Other Arguments from the Necessity of the Past
7. Other Arguments from Foreknowledge
8. Deterministic and Indeterministic Accounts of Possibility
Part III: Necessity and Purpose in Nature
9. Necessity in Nature
10. Purpose in Nature
11. Ancient and Modern Theories of Natural Selection: their relation to purpose
Part IV: Necessity and the Essences of Kinds
12. Analytic or de re?
13. Why Necessary rather than Contingent?
(Appendix: Kinds of Necessity)
Part V: Necessity and Blame
14. Cause and Necessity in Human Action
15. The Relation of Determinism to Involuntariness: Aristotle's alleged nescience
16. Involuntariness and Equity: Aristotle's alleged parsimony
18. Aristotle's Contribution to Legal Theory
(Appendix: Tragic Error)