Intellectual Mastery of Nature. Theoretical Physics from Ohm to Einstein, Volume 1

The Torch of Mathematics, 1800 to 1870

Christa Jungnickel and Russell McCormmach

Intellectual Mastery of Nature. Theoretical Physics from Ohm to Einstein, Volume 1
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Christa Jungnickel and Russell McCormmach

378 pages | 1 map | 6-5/8 x 9-1/4 | © 1986
Paper $40.00 ISBN: 9780226415826 Published September 1990
Christina Jungnickel and Russell McCormmach have created in these two volumes a panoramic history of German theoretical physics. Bridging social, institutional, and intellectual history, they chronicle the work of the researchers who, from the first years of the nineteenth century, strove for an intellectual mastery of nature.

Volume 1 opens with an account of physics in Germany at the beginning of the nineteenth century and of German physicists' reception of foreign mathematical and experimental work. Jungnickel and McCormmach follow G. S. Ohm, Wilhelm Weber, Franz Neumann, and others as these scientists work out the new possibilities for physics, introduce student laboratories and instruction in mathematical physics, organize societies and journals, and establish and advance major theories of classical physics. Before the end of the nineteenth century, German physics and its offspring, theoretical physics, had acquired nearly their present organizational forms. The foundations of the classical picture of the physical world had been securely laid, preparing the way for the developments that are the subject of volume 2.
Volume I: The Torch of Mathematics, 1800-1870
List of Illustrations
The Torch of Mathematics, 1800-1870
1. Establishing Physics at the Universities
Ideal of Bildung and Tasks of the Philosophical Faculty
Tasks and Trials of Physics Professors
Introduction to the World of Physics through Early Textbooks
2. German Physicists before 1830
Research in Physics
Careers and Theories in Physics
3. Promoting a New Physics: Earth Magnetism in Göttingen
Gauss's Interest in Earth-Magnetic Research
Gauss's Physical Principle in Earth Magnetism
Development of Mathematical and Instrumental Techniques
Organization of Earth-Magnetic Observations
Extension of Techniques to Electricity
4. Reforms in Teaching University Physics: Development of the Seminar and the Laboratory in the 1830s and 1840s
Seminars for Physics
Uses of the Seminar
Running of the Seminar
Other New Institutions for Physics
5. Physics Research in "Poggendorff's Annalen" in the 1840s
Foreign Recognition of German Physicists
Physicists and Physics Appearing in the Annalen
The Common Ground of the Sciences in the Annalen
Experimental Research
Theoretical Research
6. Connecting Laws: Careers and Individual Theories in the 1840s
Electrodynamic Researchers at Göttingen and Leipzig
Electrical Researchers at Königsberg and Berlin
Researches on Theories of Forces and of Heat at Berlin
7. Contributions of Mathematicians to Physics: Dirichlet, Riemann, and Carl Neumann
Gauss's Importance for Physics
Dirichlet as Gauss's Successor
Riemann's Lectures and Researches
Carl Neumann's Lectures and Researches
8. Developments in Switzerland and Austria Bearing on German Physics
Physics for a New Polytechnic in Switzerland
Clausius as Theoretical Physicist at Zurich
Clausius as Practical Physicist at Zurich
Training "Scientific" Physicists in Austria
Boltzmann as Theoretical Physicist at Vienna
9. Physics at German Universities from 1840 to 1870
Physics at "Only" Universities
Physics at Provincial Universities
Division of Labor
The Problem
10. Physics in Berlin: Relations to Secondary Education
Berlin Physics and the Berlin Gymnasiums
Physics in Military Education in Berlin
Physics at the Berlin Technical Institute
Physicists in Berlin after 1840
11. Physics in Munich: Relations to Technology
Ohm's Return to Bavaria
Fraunhofer's Work in Optical Instrument Manufacture
Physics at Munich University and the Bavarian Academy of Sciences
Ohm and Steinheil in Munich
Physics in Munich after Ohm
12. Kirchhoff and Helmholtz at Heidelberg: Relations of Physics to Chemistry and Physiology
Heidelberg before Kirchhoff
Kirchhoff at Heidelberg
Kirchhoff's Researches in Elasticity and Electricity
Kirchhoff and Bunsen: Researchers in Spectrum Analysis and Radiant Heat
Kirchhoff on Mechanics
Helmholtz at Heidelberg: Physiological Researches
Helmholtz's Physical Researches
Helmholtz on the Relations between Sciences
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