The Human Animal in Western Art and Science
From the lazy, fiddling grasshopper to the sneaky Big Bad Wolf, children’s stories and fables enchant us with their portrayals of animals who act like people. But the comparisons run both ways, as metaphors, stories, and images—as well as scientific theories—throughout history remind us that humans often act like animals, and that the line separating them is not as clear as we’d like to pretend.
Here Martin Kemp explores a stunning range of images and ideas to demonstrate just how deeply these underappreciated links between humans and other fauna are embedded in our culture. Tracing those interconnections among art, science, and literature, Kemp leads us on a dazzling tour of Western thought, from Aristotelian physiognomy and its influence on phrenology to the Great Chain of Being and Darwinian evolution. We learn about the racist anthropology underlying a familiar Degas sculpture, see paintings of a remarkably simian Judas, and watch Mowgli, the man-child from Kipling’s The Jungle Book, exhibit the behaviors of the beasts who raised him. Like a kaleidoscope, Kemp uses these stories to refract, reconfigure, and echo the essential truth that the way we think about animals inevitably inflects how we think about people, and vice versa.
Loaded with vivid illustrations and drawing on sources from Hesiod to La Fontaine, Leonardo to P. T. Barnum, The Human Animal in Western Art and Science is a fascinating, eye-opening reminder of our deep affinities with our fellow members of the animal kingdom.
characteristic erudition and rigour. Anyone fascinated by humans and animals
will be enriched by his narrative."
“This fascinating and unprecedented study is a model of true interdisicplinarity, illuminating a strain of thought that has received little attention. It compellingly demonstrates how utterly central questions about the relationship between humans and animals have been and continue to be within larger philosophical debates. A significant contribution to the history of ideas.”
“Beginning with a lucid (and rather gruesomely illustrated) discussion of the four humours, which humans and animals were thought to share, Mr. Kemp moves through the centuries. Dürer, Cranach, Da Vinci, and Rembrandt may occupy pride of place, and rightly so, but many fascinating, lesser known figures appear as well. . . . Although Mr. Kemp is steeped in the works of the great masters of Western art, he has an endearing taste for kitsch that he draws on to enliven his discussion. . . . Through such images, high and low, Mr. Kemp illumines the shadowy interchanges between the realms of man and beast to show, yet again, that however parallel they may seem, they constantly intersect.”--Eric Ormsby, New York Sun
“The animal and the human are not just allegorical companions; Darwin showed how close they really are. . . . Martin Kemp shows just how powerful the theme is, and how essential it is to Western traditions of art and science. The animal is used to reveal the human, the human to reveal the animal.”
The Louise Smith Bross Lectures by John Bross
Preface and Acknowledgements
Introduction: Facing up to Ourselves
PART I HUMORS, TEMPERAMENTS, SIGNS
1 Fixing the Signs
2 Feelings and Faces
PART 2 SOULS AND MACHINES
4 Fable and Fact: La Fontaine and Buffon
PART 3 GOING APE
5 Beastly Boys and Admirable Animals
6 Our Animal Cousins
7 Art and Atavism
A Literary-Cinematic Postscript
A Personal Footnote