Chicago Business and Industry

From Fur Trade to E-Commerce

Edited by Janice L. Reiff

Edited by Janice L. Reiff

392 pages | 23 halftones, 7 maps, 1 line drawing | 7 x 10 | © 2013
Paper $22.50 ISBN: 9780226709369 Published May 2013
From its humble beginnings as a fur-trading outpost, Chicago has become one of the foremost centers of world finance and trade. With its blue-collar work ethic and an economic history that extends into virtually every segment of American industry, it certainly lives up to its moniker as the City That Works.

Drawing on the award-winning Encyclopedia of Chicago, Janice L. Reiff has compiled a unique history of work in the Windy City. Beginning with an overview of the city’s commercial development, Chicago Business and Industry considers how key industries shaped—and were shaped by—both the local and global economies. The city’s phenomenal population growth, its proximity to water, and its development of railroads made Chicago one of the most productive markets for lumber and grain throughout the nineteenth century. The region’s once-booming steel industry, on the other hand, suffered a dramatic decline in the second half of the twentieth century, when already weakened demand met with increasing international competition. Chicago Business and Industry chronicles the Chicago region’s changing fortunes from its beginning.

Reiff has compiled and updated essays from the Encyclopedia covering the city’s most historically famous—and infamous—companies, from the Union Stock Yard to Montgomery Ward to the Board of Trade. The book concludes with a historical account of labor types and issues in the city, with attention to such topics as health-care workers, unemployment, and unionization. Today, Groupon and a host of other high-tech firms have led some experts to christen Chicago the Silicon Valley of the Midwest. Reiff’s new introduction takes account of these and other recent trends.

Engaging, accessible, and packed with fascinating facts, Chicago Business and Industry invites readers into the history and diversity of work in the city, helping them understand how Chicago became Chicago.
EH.net
“Reiff draws on entries from the Encyclopedia of Chicago to weave a history of Chicago’s economy. Reiff seeks to explore the reciprocal relationship between the metropolitan area and its economy. . . . After finding this volume on the bookshelf, one hopes that readers will discover the complete work from which it is drawn.”
Business History Review
“Readers looking for a comprehensive account of Chicago’s rise to power as a preeminent business and industrial center should consult the essays in Reiff’s Chicago Business and Industry. . . . All the essays in the book originally appeared as entries in The Encyclopedia of Chicago. . . . Greeted by scholars as a major contribution to urban history, the Encyclopedia was not—it is clear—just a stand-alone success. Chicago Business and Industry has the virtue of bringing together themes dispersed throughout the Encyclopedia. . . . The introductory essays likewise underscore the importance of viewing Chicago’s business development in relation to its agricultural hinterland and the rest of the world.”
Contents
Acknowledgments
Introduction

I. The Economic Geography of Chicago
Global Chicago
MICHAEL P. CONZEN
Economic Geography 
SUSAN E. HIRSCH
Retail Geography 
MAX GRINNELL

II. The Business of Chicago
Business of Chicago
PETER A. COCLANIS
Innovation, Invention, and Chicago Business
LOUIS P. CAIN
Accounting 
PAUL J. MIRANTI JR.
Advertising 
QUENTIN J. SCHULTZE
Agricultural Machinery Industry 
FRED CARSTENSEN
Agriculture 
CHAS. P. RALEIGH
Airlines 
LIESL M. ORENIC
Automobile Manufacturing 
DAVID M. YOUNG
Automobile Parts 
MARK R. WILSON
Banking, Commercial 
LARRY E. SCHWEIKART
Breweries 
HAROLD L. PLATT
Broadcasting 
RICH SAMUELS
Chemicals
MARK R. WILSON
Clothing and Garment Manufacturing 
YOUNGSOO BAE
Commodities Markets 
OWEN K. GREGORY
Construction 
MARK R. WILSON
Consumer Credit
LENDOL CALDER
Cosmetics and Hair Care Products
MARK R. WILSON
Department Stores
JEFFREY A. BRUNE
Drug Retailing
RICK KOGAN
Electronics
EMILY CLARK AND MARK R. WILSON
Film
J. A. LINDSTROM
Food Processing: Local Market
BRUCE KRAIG
Food Processing: Regional and National Market
MARK R. WILSON
Furniture
JOHN B. JENTZ
Fur Trade
B. PIERRE LEBEAU
Gas and Electricity
HAROLD L. PLATT
Grocery Stores and Supermarkets
PAUL GILMORE
Hospitals
PAUL A. BUELOW
Hotels
MOLLY W. BERGER
Insurance
BEATRIX HOFFMAN
Iron and Steel
DAVID BENSMEN AND MARK R. WILSON
Law
R. BEN BROWN
Liquor Distribution
SUDHIR VENKATESH
Lumber
THEODORE J. KARAMANSKI
Mail Order
MARK R. WILSON
Management Consulting
CHRISTOPHER MCKENNA
Meatpacking
LOUISE CARROLL WADE
Medical Manufacturing and Pharmaceuticals
BEATRIX HOFFMAN
Musical Instrument Manufacturing
CRAIG H. ROELL
Music Publishing
DENA J. EPSTEIN
Newspapers
RICHARD A. SCHWARZLOSE
Oil Refining
MARK R. WILSON
Printing
PAUL F. GEHL
Publishing, Book
CONNIE GODDARD
Publishing, Trade Publications
KATHLEEN L. ENDRES
Railroads
JOHN C. HUDSON
Railroad Supply Industry
MARK R. WILSON
Real Estate
PIERRE DEVISE
Record Publishing
MARK CLAGUE
Restaurants
BRUCE KRAIG
Savings and Loans
JEFFREY A. BRUNE
Sporting Goods Manufacturing
TIMOTHY E. SULLIVAN
Tourism and Conventions
ANNE MOORE
Toy Manufacturing
ANNE MOORE
Underground Economy
CHRISTOPHER THALE
Wholesaling
MARK R. WILSON

III. Chicago’s Businesses
Abbott Laboratories
Ace Hardware Corp.
Alberto-Culver Co.
Allstate Corp.
American Steel Foundries
Andersen (Arthur) & Co.
Anixter International Inc.
Aon
Armour & Co.
Associated Negro Press
LAWRENCE DANIEL HOGAN
Baker & McKenzie
Bankers Life and Casualty Co.
Baxter International Inc.
Beatrice Foods Co.
Bell & Howell Co.
Booz Allen Hamilton Inc.
BorgWarner Inc.
Brach’s Confections
Brunswick Corp.
Burnett (Leo) Co.
Burnham & Root
Capsonic Group LLC
Carson Pirie Scott & Co.
CDW LLC
Chicago Defender
WALLACE BEST
Chicago Title and Trust Co. 
ROSS MILLER
CNA Financial Corp.
Commonwealth Edison Co.
Container Corporation of America
Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust Co.
Corn Products Refining Co.
Cracker Jack Co.
Crane Co.
Crate & Barrel
Dean Milk Co.
Dick (A. B.) Co.
Dominick’s Finer Foods Inc.
Donnelley (R. R.) & Sons Co.
Duchossois Industries Inc.
Elgin National Watch Co.
Evans Food Products
Federal Signal Corp.
Field (Marshall) & Co.
Field Enterprises Inc.
First National Bank of Chicago
Florsheim Shoe Co.
Flying Food Group Inc.
FMC Corp.
Follett Corp.
Foote, Cone & Belding
Fuller (George A.) Co.
GATX Corp.
Grainger (W. W.) Inc.
Hammond Organ Co.
Harpo Productions Inc.
Harris Trust & Savings Bank
Hart Schaffner & Marx
Helene Curtis Industries Inc.
Hewitt Associates
Hibbard, Spencer, Bartlett & Co.
Household Finance Corp.
Hyatt Hotels Corp.
IC Industries Inc.
IGA Inc.
Illinois Bell Telephone Co.
Illinois Central Railroad 
JOHN P. HANKEY
Illinois Tool Works Inc.
Inland Steel Co. 
JONATHAN KEYES
International Harvester Co.
Jewel-Osco
Johnson Products Co.
Johnson Publishing Co. 
ADAM GREEN
Kemper Corp.
Kirkland & Ellis
Kraft Inc.
LaSalle National Bank
Lettuce Entertain You Enterprises Inc.
Levy (Chas.) Circulating Co.
Marmon Group Inc.
Material Service Corp. 
ANDREW W. COHEN
Mayer (Oscar) & Co.
McDonald’s Corp.
Molex, Inc.
Morton Salt Co.
Motorola Inc.
TIMOTHY J. GILFOYLE
Nalco Chemical Co.
Nicor Inc.
Nielsen (A. C.) Co.
Northern Trust Co.
Nuveen (John) Co.
Peoples Gas Light & Coke Co.
Pepper Construction Co.
Perkins & Will
Pinkerton National Detective Agency
Playboy Enterprises Inc. 
MAX GRINNELL
Prairie Farmer 
SUSAN SESSIONS RUGH
Pullman Inc. 
MARTHA T. BRIGGS AND CYNTHIA H. PETERS
Quaker Oats Co.
Rand McNally & Co.
Ryerson (Joseph T.) & Son
S&C Electric Co.
Sara Lee Corp.
Sayers Group LLC
Schwinn Bicycle
Sears, Roebuck & Co.
Sidley Austin LLP
Signode
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill
Standard Oil Co. (Indiana)
Stone Container Corp.
Swift & Co.
Telephone and Data Systems Inc.
Tootsie Roll Industries Inc.
Tribune Co.
True Value Co.
Union Tank Car Co.
United Airlines
United States Gypsum Co.
United Stationers Supply Co.
Veluchamy Enterprises
Walgreen Co.
Ward (Montgomery) & Co.
Waste Management Inc.
Western Electric Co.
Wilson Sporting Goods Co. 
JOHN H. LONG
Wirtz Corp.
Wrigley (William, Jr.) Co.
Yellow Cab Co. (of Chicago)
Zenith Electronics

IV. Working in Chicago
Work 
DAVID MOBERG
Work Culture 
LYNN Y. WEINER
Leisure 
STEVEN A. RIESS
Schooling for Work
ARTHUR ZILVERSMIT
Building Trades and Workers 
RICHARD SCHNEIROV
Clerical Workers 
LISA MICHELLE FINE
Domestic Work and Workers
DANIEL A. GRAFF
Health Care Workers 
KEITH ANDREW MANN
Housekeeping 
GLENNA MATTHEWS
Ironworkers and Steelworkers 
JONATHAN REES
Railroad Workers 
CHRISTOPHER THALE
Retail Workers 
DANIEL A. GRAFF
Unemployment 
ALAN HARRIS STEIN
Unionization 
JAMES R. BARRETT
Anti-Unionism 
DAVID MOBERG
Strikes 
RICHARD SCHNEIROV

Bibliography
Index
For more information, or to order this book, please visit http://www.press.uchicago.edu
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