Instructions for Authors

Manuscript Submission

Submit your manuscript online via the Physiological and Biochemical Zoology Editorial Manager system at Detailed instructions are below.


Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: Ecological and Evolutionary Approaches primarily publishes original research papers (not submitted elsewhere) in animal physiology and biochemistry, with a specific emphasis on studies that address the behavioral, ecological, and/or evolutionary aspects of morphological, physiological, and biochemical mechanisms. Studies at all levels of biological organization from the molecular to the whole organism are welcome, and work that integrates levels of organization to address important questions in behavioral, ecological, evolutionary or comparative physiology is particularly encouraged. Subdisciplines of interest include nutrition and digestion, salt and water balance, epithelial and membrane transport, gas exchange and transport, acid-base balance, temperature adaptation, metabolic energetics and regulation, structure and function of macromolecules, chemical coordination and signal transduction, nitrogen metabolism and excretion, locomotion and muscle function, biomechanics, circulation, behavioral, comparative and mechanistic endocrinology, sensory physiology, neural coordination, and ecotoxicology. Regardless of the specific area of focus, submitted manuscripts should be of interest to the broad general readership of PBZ, address important biological questions, and test clearly articulated and substantive hypotheses. Multispecies comparative studies should give due consideration to phylogeny when conducting statistical analyses and drawing evolutionary interpretations (see, for example, Garland and Adolph 1994 Physiological Zoology 67, 797-828). All papers should clearly state the broader scientific relevance and implications of the work.

PBZ publishes a broad range of paper types, including Research Papers, Brief Communications, Technical Comments, Comments on Published Papers, Education and Outreach, Book Reviews, Invited Perspectives, Reviews, In Memoriam papers for distinguished scholars, and Special Collections, which can range from conference papers to symposium summaries, and potentially involving a Guest Editor. All papers are subject to double-blind peer review. All categories might not be represented in every issue of PBZ.

Papers that are primarily descriptive and/or relevant only to the taxon being studied do not fit within the editorial scope of PBZ.

Formatting Electronic Files

Please adhere to the requirements below when submitting a new or revised manuscript via Editorial Manager. The system relies on automated processing to create a PDF file from your submission. If you do not follow these instructions, your submission cannot be processed and will not be received by the journal office.

Acceptable Formats

Body of manuscript: Microsoft Word or other word processing program. Tables: Microsoft Word or Excel, or other word processing or spreadsheet program.Figures: Image documents at 300 or greater dpi, such as tif, eps.

File Contents

Word documents should be submitted as a single file. If you have used any revision or editorial tracking tools in your word-processing program, be sure the final version of your manuscript does not contain tracked changes. Authors should submit figures as separate files, in TIFF (.tif) or EPS (.eps) (not GIF [.gif] or JPEG [.jpg]) format.


In addition to the main manuscript file, submit your cover letter, if any, as a separate file.


Revised and Final Versions of Manuscripts

If you are submitting a revised manuscript, include your detailed, point-by-point responses to reviewers as a separate document. The final version of your manuscript must be submitted in Microsoft Word (.doc or .docx). For all versions of manuscripts, observe the same formatting instructions outlined above.

General Specifications

What to Submit

Uploaded files should be in a word processing program, with figures and tables submitted as separate items.

Text should be double-spaced throughout, including literature cited. Font should be Times New Roman, 12 point. Do not justify paragraphs. All pages should be numbered. Lines should be numbered continuously. Page breaks should be inserted as needed before new sections of the manuscript, rather than hard returns (using the Enter key), and tabs should be used instead of multiple spaces for indentations or to align information in a table.

Title Page

The title page should include the following information: title; a running page head (60 or fewer characters, including spaces); contact information for the corresponding author and coauthors; a list of 5–8 key words or phrases; and the following two brief sections:

What Is Already Known

Provide 2-3 sentences indicating the current state of knowledge in the relevant field that is applicable to the basis of your study.

What This Study Adds

Provide 2-3 sentences indicating what new findings or knowledge your study brings to the field.


Acknowledgments of financial support should be made under Acknowledgments, not on the title page.


The abstract should summarize the findings concretely; sentences indicating that a particular subject is discussed should be omitted. The abstract should not contain abbreviations that will be recognized only by an expert on the subject, and it should not contain citations of the literature. In general, the abstract should not exceed 250 words.

Main Body of the Text

The main body of the text should be divided into sections headed Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion, followed by Acknowledgments, Literature Cited, Tables, Figure Legends, and Figures. In the main body of the text, headings should be in bold, subheadings in italics, and sub-subheadings should be underlined.

If the manuscript reports on work conducted on vertebrate animals, the appropriate institutional approval number should be listed in the Methods.

Footnotes are not used in PBZ, and this information should instead be incorporated into the text.

Spelling must follow American convention. Punctuation should follow that recommended in the current edition of The Chicago Manual of Style.


Online-only content such as an appendix, figures, or tables should be clearly labeled as an electronic supplement. All items must follow the same standards as print Items.


To refer to an online-only supplement, use wording such as “see appendix, available online,” “table A1, available online,” “(fig. A1, available online),” etc.

Literature Cited

All references listed in the Literature Cited should be cited in the text; all references cited in the text should be listed in the Literature Cited.

Literature should be cited in the main body of the text by the surname of author(s) and four-digit year of publication, with no comma separating the two. Multiple citations within parentheses should be made in chronological, not alphabetical, order and separated by a semicolon. Papers by one or two authors should be cited in the text by one or two surnames; papers by three or more authors should be cited by the first author's surname followed by "et al.," for example, "Smith and Wesson (2014)" but "Johnson et al. (2011)" for three or more authors.


Bibliographic information should be listed under Literature Cited, beginning on a new page following Acknowledgments. The listings should be arranged in alphabetical order according to the surname of the first author. For multiple articles by the same author(s) in the same year, label each date with an italic a or b, etc., and order the references alphabetically by the first letter of the title of the article (excluding “A,” “The,” etc.). For articles by the same first author and different coauthors in the same year, order alphabetically according to the second author’s surname and label the date with a or b, etc..


Publications by a single author should precede those by the same author with coauthors. Each reference should begin with the first author, name inverted, with no comma separating last name and initials and no space between the initials, followed by the other authors with names not inverted. If an article has more than 10 authors, list only the first seven, followed by “et al.” If the author(s) are exactly repeated in a subsequent reference, replace all author names with three em dashes (—).


After the first line of each reference, succeeding lines should be indented. Manuscripts that have not been accepted for publication must not be cited in the reference list, although the information can be mentioned in the text as unpublished observations or personal communications, preceded by the authors’ first initials and last names (not inverted).


It is critical that you follow the examples presented below and the principles outlined above to follow PBZ journal style for references. Any manuscripts submitted that fall wildly outside these guidelines will be returned for proper formatting.

Journal article

Journal titles should be abbreviated according to BIOSIS Serial Sources and not italicized. Italics should be used for scientific names. Provide only the volume number; do not include an issue number. Give the full page range of each article. DOI identifiers are not required; however, if the article is posted online ahead of print and no page numbers are available, please provide the DOI if available.

Beers J.M. and B.D. Sidell. 2011. Thermal tolerance of Antarctic notothenioid fishes correlates with level of

circulating hemoglobin. Physiol Biochem Zool 84:353–362.


Boggs C.L. and K. Niitepõld. Forthcoming. Insights from stable isotopic tracers on reproductive allocation under

stress. Integr Comp Biol. doi:10.1093/icb/icu074.

Bradley T.J. 1984. Mitochondrial placement and function in insect ion-transporting cells. Am Zool 24:157–167.  

Clark T.D., E. Sandblom, and F. Jutfelt. 2013. Aerobic scope measurements of fishes in an era of climate change:

respirometry, relevance and recommendations. J Exp Biol 216:2771–2782.


Garland T., Jr., P.E. Midford, and A.R. Ives. 1999. An introduction to phylogenetically based statistical methods,

with a new method for confidence intervals on ancestral values. Am Zool 39:374–388.


Gerson A.R. and C.G. Guglielmo. 2011a. Flight at low ambient humidity increases protein catabolism in migratory

birds. Science 333:1434–1436.


———. 2011b. House sparrows (Passer domesticus) increase protein catabolism in response to water restriction. Am

J Physiol 300:R925–R930.


Hegemann, A., K.D. Matson, M.A. Versteegh, and B.I. Tieleman. 2012. Wild skylarks seasonally modulate energy

budgets but maintain energetically costly inflammatory immune responses throughout the annual cycle. PLoS ONE:e36358.


Martin L.B., C.A.C. Coon, A.L. Liebl, and A.W. Schrey. 2014. Surveillance for microbes and range expansion in

house sparrows. Proc R Soc B 281. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.2690.


Owerkowicz T., C.G. Farmer, J.W. Hicks, and E.L. Brainerd. 1999. Contribution of gular pumping to lung

ventilation in monitor lizards. Science 284:1661–1663. 


Ruben J.A. and A.F. Bennett. 1987. The evolution of bone. Evolution 41:1187–1197. 


Smith A.B. 1995a. The rise in blood glucose during hibernation of the golden plover (Pluvialis dominica). J Avian

Metab 20:19–2 1. 


———. 1995b. The fall in blood glucose during hibernation of the golden plover (Pluvialis dominica). J Avian Metab



Zheng W.-H., L. Lin, J.-S. Liu, H. Pan, M.-T. Cao, and Y.-L. Hu. 2013a. Physiological and biochemical

thermoregulatory responses of Chinese bulbuls Pycnonotus sinensis to warm temperature: phenotypic flexibility in a small passerine. J Therm Biol 38:240–246.


Zheng W.-H., L. Lin, J.-S. Liu, X.-J. Xu, and M. Li. 2013b. Geographic variation in basal thermogenesis in little

buntings: relationship to cellular thermogenesis and thyroid hormone concentrations. Comp Biochem Physiol A 164:483–490.




Hair, J.F., Jr., W.C. Black, B.J. Babin, and R.E. Anderson. 2010. Multivariate data analysis. 7th ed. Prentice Hall,

Upper Saddle River, NJ.


Holyoak D.T. 2001. Nightjars and Their Allies. Oxford University Press, New York.


Piersma T. and J.A. Van Gils. 2010. The flexible phenotype: a body-centred integration of ecology, physiology, and

behaviour. Oxford University Press, New York.


Williams T.D. 2012. Physiological adaptations for breeding in birds. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.


Chapter in an edited book

Peck L.S. and L.Z. Conway. 2000. The myth of metabolic cold adaptation:

oxygen consumption in stenothermal Antarctic bivalves. Pp. 441–450 in E. Harper, J.D. Taylor, and J.A. Crame, eds. Evolutional Biology of the Bivalve. Geological Society of London, London.


Translated book

Ecker J. 1889. The Anatomy of the Frog. Translated by J. Haslem. Clarendon, Oxford.


Book with group as author

American Ornithologists' Union. 1998. Checklist of North American Birds. 7th ed.

Allen, Lawrence, KS.


PhD dissertation

Milenkaya O. 2013. Validating body condition indices as indicators of individual quality: does condition explain

intraspecific variation in reproductive success and survival among crimson finches (Neochmia phaeton)? PhD diss. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg.

Published computer software

R Development Core Team. 2013. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for

Statistical Computing, Vienna.



Tables should be double-spaced on separate pages following the Literature Cited section. They should be numbered in order of presentation in the text. The title should be placed at the top. Explanatory information and experimental conditions should be given as a note at the bottom. In the manuscript body, tables should be cited as “Table 1,” “Table 2,” and so on. Tables should be created with the word-processing table-editing feature. Authors are requested to design tabular material, if possible, so that the length exceeds the width, like a column on the printed page. For further information about the preparation of tables, see the Guidelines for Tables.


As a general guideline, consider preparation of figures in a form that could be suitable for reproduction in a textbook. In other words, make them accessible and inviting to a general audience. Do not use figures to present simple comparisons, such as the means and standard errors of two groups; rather, this sort of result can be included in the text or in a table that includes data for additional measured traits.


Suggestions for preparing figures can be found in Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors and Publishers, 8th edition (Council of Science Editors), and The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition (University of Chicago Press).

Figures should be numbered in order of presentation in the text. They should be cited in the body of the manuscript as Figure “Figure 1,” Figure “Figure 2,” and so on, or as and when appearing in parentheses as “Fig. 1,” “Fig. 2,” and so on, in parentheses. The font of lettering used for figures should be simple and consistent throughout. Figure legends should be placed on a separate page after tables. A legend should begin with a title, followed by explanatory material and experimental conditions, in complete sentences. All pertinent conditions, such as temperature, salinity, pH and buffer composition, and so on, should be given, even if redundant.

Color figures may be submitted for review, but they will appear in grayscale in print. You may request that the figure be provided in color as an online enhancement to the electronically published paper. Figures may be published in color if deemed necessary by the Editor in Chief, subject to a printing cost to be met by the authors of the accepted paper.

For further information about the preparation of figures, see the Guidelines for Artwork.

Symbols, Units, and Nomenclature

SI units and the notation scheme recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) must be used. Except for thermodynamics, the Celsius temperature scale is preferred.

Biochemical nomenclature should follow that proposed by the joint IUPAC-IUB (International Union of Biochemistry) Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature. Where appropriate, physiological nomenclature and notation should follow that recommended by various subcommittees on nomenclature of the IUPS (International Union of Physiological Sciences) and published in the Journal of Applied Physiology.

The most recent taxonomic nomenclature must be used. At the first mention in the text (not the title), the species authority should be given. Although further classification need not be given, either in the title or the text, it is advisable to convey this information by either formal or informal name if the group will not be immediately recognized by most physiological zoologists.

Ad hoc abbreviations in the text are not acceptable.

For further information about symbols, foreign language characters, and other non-ASCII characters, see the Guidelines for Mathematical and Other Non-ASCII Symbols.

Page Charges

No page charges are assessed for papers published in PBZ.

Open Access Policy

PBZ authors have the option to make their accepted paper freely available online immediately upon publication. The fee for Open Access is $1,000. Contact for more information.


UK authors should note that this option cannot be used to comply with RCUK regulations for gold OA, as the University of Chicago Press requires permission for commercial reuse. UCP does comply with the RCUK regulations for green OA.

"Green" Open Access

The University of Chicago Press supports Green Open Access for all articles, as defined by the RCUK Open Access Policy, under the Press’s Guidelines for Journal Authors’ Rights.

PBZ Need-Based Grant

PBZ will consider contributing a partial need-based grant towards Open Access fees if Open Access is required but not funded. A formal appeal letter to Editor in Chief Theodore Garland, Jr., is required for consideration.

Preparing Accepted Manuscripts for Publication

Before an accepted manuscript can be published, the following must be provided by the corresponding author to the PBZ editorial office: a signed publication agreement and final figures, if the figures submitted with the final manuscript were not of suitable quality for publication.

Signed Publication Agreement

The publication agreement will be sent to you by the PBZ editorial office. This agreement should be signed and returned to the editorial offices via e-mail (, fax, or mail.

Final Electronic Copy of the Accepted Manuscript and Tables

Submit the electronic copy via Editorial Manager in a word processing program.

Do not submit files that contain links to other files or that subscribe to other documents. Do not include embedded tables or images, unless the program word processor first converts them to its native format. Exception: for embedding equations in a word-processing file, see the Guidelines for Mathematical and Other Non-ASCII Symbols.

Follow these formatting guidelines:

  • Use Times New Roman 12-point type.
  • Use double spacing.
  • If you use any revision or editorial tracking feature (such as Microsoft Word's Revisions or Track Changes features), be sure that all changes have been accepted or rejected and the file contains only one version of the document.
  • Use the word processor's built-in superscript and subscript attributes rather than special commands to change the font size or position.
  • Do not use hard returns at the end of a line, except to end a heading or paragraph and begin a new one.
  • Use tabs to indent the beginning of a new paragraph.
  • Avoid changing fonts for emphasis or for headings or subheadings.
  • Do not use Hidden Text or Comments features or nonprinting text of any kind.
  • If your article contains mathematical formulae, special math characters, foreign letters, or other non-ASCII characters, see the Guidelines for Mathematical and Other Non-ASCII Symbols.

Final Electronic Copy of the Figures

Quality and Content
Generally, the quality of the artwork in print will depend on the quality of the artwork provided by the author of an accepted manuscript. Follow these guidelines for artwork:

  • Line art should be provided as bitmapped TIFF files saved at a resolution of 800–1200 dpi (dots per inch).
  • Black and white photographs, micrographs, and so on should be provided as grayscale TIFF files saved at a resolution of 300 dpi or higher.
  • Color art should be provided as EPS files, CMYK, at a resolution of 300 dpi or higher. (If this format is not available, provide color art as Photoshop files.)
  • Do not provide figures as word processing or Power Point files.
  • Graphics downloaded from Web pages are not acceptable for print reproduction. These graphics are low-resolution images that are below acceptable standards for print reproduction. The only exception to this rule is a screen capture of a Web page that is being discussed or reviewed.
  • Figures themselves should not contain a title or text that is duplicated in the figure legend.
  • Please use the same standard font for all figures.
  • Do not use lines that are thinner than 2 points, and do not use the "hairline" width option.
  • Light or electron micrographs should include a scale bar.

For further information about the preparation of figures, see the Guidelines for Artwork.


If the artwork you are submitting has been published elsewhere (including online) or is otherwise copyrighted, we must have a letter of permission from the copyright holder in order to use the image. In addition, if the artwork is not your own, we will need information about its source.

Online Submission Instructions

Please have the following items readily available before beginning the online submission process:

  • Manuscript in an acceptable format as described above
  • Cover letter as a separate file (optional)
  • Information from title page: title, running head, list of authors and affiliations, contact information for the corresponding author, key words, What Is Already Known? and What This Study Adds.
  • Abstract of the manuscript (to be copied and pasted into a field in Editorial Manager)
  • Names and e-mail addresses for up to three suggested referees for the manuscript

Submit your manuscript to the Physiological and Biochemical Zoology Editorial Manager system at