Instructions for Authors

Manuscript Submission

Authors are encouraged to submit manuscripts online via the Physiological and Biochemical Zoology Editorial Manager system at Detailed instructions are available below. If you do not have access to the Internet, please contact the editorial office by telephone (773-702-3101), fax (773-753-1058), or e-mail ( to arrange an alternative method of submission. It is no longer necessary to submit a hard copy in addition to an electronic submission.

Aims and Scope:

Physiological and Biochemical Zoology primarily publishes original research papers in animal physiology and biochemistry with a specific emphasis on studies that address the ecological and/or evolutionary aspects of physiological and biochemical mechanisms. Studies at all levels of biological organization from the molecular to the whole organism are welcome, and work that integrates levels of organization to address important questions in behavioral, ecological, evolutionary or comparative physiology is particularly encouraged. Studies should be of interest to the broad general readership of PBZ, address important questions in the field of comparative biology, and test a clearly articulated and significant hypothesis. Multispecies comparative studies should give due consideration to phylogeny when conducting statistical analyses and drawing evolutionary interpretations (see, for example, Garland and Adolph 1994 Physiological Zoology 67, 797-828). All papers should clearly state the broader scientific relevance and implications of the work.

PBZ also publishes occasional reviews, Technical Comments, and Invited Perspective papers.

Papers that are primarily descriptive and/or relevant only to the taxon being studied do not fit within the editorial scope of PBZ. PBZ does not publish book reviews or short notes.

Formatting Electronic Files

Please adhere to the requirements below when submitting a new or revised manuscript via Editorial Manager. The system relies on automated processing to create a PDF file from your submission. If you do not follow these instructions, your submission cannot be processed and will not be received by the journal office.

Acceptable Formats

  • Microsoft Word (.doc)(any recent version)

File Contents

Word documents should be submitted as a single file. Authors should submit figures as separate files, in TIFF (.tif) or EPS (.eps) (not GIF [.gif] or JPEG [.jpg]) format.

Please note that authors of accepted manuscripts may be required to submit high-resolution hard copies of all figures during production, as not all digital art files are usable.

In addition to the main manuscript file, submit your cover letter, if any, as a separate file in the same format as your main file. If you have used any revision or editorial tracking tools in your word-processing program, be sure the final version of your manuscript does not contain tracked changes.

Revised and Final Versions of Manuscripts

If you are submitting a revised manuscript, include your responses to the reviewers as part of the cover letter file. When submitting a revised manuscript with figures, include all figures, even if they have not changed since the previous version. The final version of your manuscript must be submitted in Microsoft Word (.doc); a PDF is not adequate. For all versions of manuscripts, observe the same formatting instructions outlined above.

General Specifications

What to Submit

Uploaded files should be in Microsoft Word or WordPerfect, with all figures and tables, including photographs, submitted as separate items.

Pages should be numbered. Page breaks should be inserted instead of hard returns, and tabs should be used instead of multiple spaces for indentations or to align information in a table. Please use continuous line numbering.

Title Page

The title page should include the following information: title, a running page head of a maximum of 60 characters including spaces, and accurate contact information for the corresponding author and coauthors.

Acknowledgments of financial support should be made under Acknowledgments, not on the title page.


The abstract should summarize the findings concretely; sentences indicating that a particular subject is discussed should be omitted. The abstract should not contain abbreviations that will be recognized only by an expert on the subject, and it should not contain citations of the literature. In general, the abstract should be approximately 200 words.

Main Body of the Text

The main body of the text should be divided into sections headed Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, and Discussion, followed by Acknowledgments, Literature Cited, Tables, and Figure Legends. These headings should be set with no indentation from the left margin. Primary subheadings should be underlined and also set with no indentation from the left margin. Secondary subheadings should be underlined and followed by a period, with no indentation from the left margin.

If the manuscript reports on work conducted on vertebrate animals, the appropriate institutional approval number should be listed in the Material and Methods section of the text.

Footnotes should be incorporated into the text.

Spelling must follow American convention. Punctuation should follow that recommended in The Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition)

Literature Cited

Literature should be cited in the main body of the text by author name(s) and four-digit year of publication, with no comma separating the two. Multiple citations within parentheses should be made in chronological, not alphabetical, order and separated by a semicolon. If two publications by the same author(s) appeared in the same year, the first should be designated by a lowercase "a," the second by "b," and so on, following the date. Papers by one or two authors should be cited in the text by one or two surnames; papers by three or more authors should be cited by the first author's surname followed by "et al.," for example, "Smith and Jones (1994a)," but "Johnson et al. (1995)" for three or more authors.

Bibliographic information should be given under Literature Cited, beginning on a new page and immediately following Acknowledgments. The listings should be arranged in alphabetical order. Publications by a single author should precede those by the same author with coauthors. Each reference should begin with the first author, name inverted, with no comma separating last name and initials, followed by the other authors with names not inverted. After the first line of each reference, succeeding lines should be indented. Manuscripts that have not been accepted for publication must not be cited in the reference list, although the information can be mentioned in the text as unpublished observations or personal communications.

Journal article

Journal titles should be abbreviated according to BIOSIS Serial Sources and not italicized. Italics should be used for scientific names. Give the full page range of each article.

Bradley T.J. 1984. Mitochondrial placement and function in insect
ion-transporting cells. Am Zool 24:157–167.

Ruben J.A. and A.F. Bennett. 1987. The evolution of bone.
Evolution 41:1187–1197.

Owerkowicz T., C.G. Farmer, J.W. Hicks, and E.L. Brainerd. 1999. Contribution
of gular pumping to lung ventilation in monitor lizards. Science 284:1661–1663.

Smith A.B. 1995a. The rise in blood glucose during hibernation
of the golden headed plover Dickus birdus. J Avian Metab 20:19–2 1.

———. 1995b. The fall in blood glucose during hibernation of
the golden headed plover Dickus birdus. J Avian Metab 20:22–23.


Holyoak D.T. 2001. Nightjars and Their Allies. Oxford University Press, New York.

Chapter in an edited book

Peck L.S. and L.Z. Conway. 2000. The myth of metabolic cold adaptation:

oxygen consumption in stenothermal Antarctic bivalves. Pp. 441–450 in E. Harper, J.D. Taylor, and J.A. Crame, eds. Evolutional Biology of the Bivalve. Geological Society of London, London.

Translated book

Ecker J. 1889. The Anatomy of the Frog. Translated by J. Haslem. Clarendon, Oxford.

Book with group as author

American Ornithologists' Union. 1998. Checklist of North American Birds. 7th ed.

Allen Press, Lawrence, KS.


Tables should be double spaced on separate sheets following the Literature Cited section. They should be numbered in order of presentation in the text. The title should be placed at the top. Explanatory information and experimental conditions should be given as a note at the bottom. In the text, tables should be cited as Table 1, Table 2, and so on. Tables should be created with the word-processing table-editing feature. Authors are requested to design tabular material, if possible, so that the length exceeds the width, like a column on the printed page. For further information about the preparation of tables, see the Guidelines for Tables.


Suggestions for preparing figures can be found in Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors and Publishers, 7th edition (Council of Science Editors), and The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition (The University of Chicago Press).

Figures should be numbered in order of presentation in the text. They should be cited in the text as Figure 1, Figure 2, and so on. The font of lettering used for figures should be simple and consistent throughout. Figure legends should be placed on a separate page after tables. A legend should begin with a title, which is followed by explanatory material and experimental conditions written in complete sentences. All pertinent conditions, such as temperature, salinity, pH and buffer composition, and so on, should be given, even if redundant.

Color figures may be submitted for review, but they will appear in black and white in print. You may request that the figure be provided in color as an online enhancement to the electronically published paper. Figures may be published in color if deemed necessary by the Editor in Chief, subject to a printing cost to be met by the authors of the accepted paper.

For further information about the preparation of figures, see the Guidelines for Artwork.

Symbols, Units, and Nomenclature

SI units and the notation scheme recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) must be used. Except for thermodynamics, the Celsius temperature scale is preferred.

Biochemical nomenclature should follow that proposed by the joint IUPAC-IUB (International Union of Biochemistry) Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature. Where appropriate, physiological nomenclature and notation should follow that recommended by various subcommittees on nomenclature of the IUPS (International Union of Physiological Sciences) and published in the Journal of Applied Physiology.

The most recent taxonomic nomenclature must be used. At the first mention in the text (not the title), the species authority should be given. Although further classification need not be given, either in the title or the text, it is advisable to convey this information by either formal or informal name if the group will not be immediately recognized by most physiological zoologists.

Ad hoc abbreviations in the text are not acceptable.

For further information about symbols, foreign language characters, and other non-ASCII characters, see the Guidelines for Mathematical and Other Non-ASCII Symbols.

Page Charges

No page charges are assessed for research papers, invited perspectives, or technical comments.

Open Access Policy

PBZ authors have the option to make their accepted paper freely available online immediately upon publication. The fee for Open Access is $1,000. Contact for more information.


UK authors should note that this option cannot be used to comply with RCUK regulations for gold OA, as the University of Chicago Press requires permission for commercial reuse. UCP does comply with the RCUK regulations for green OA.

"Green" Open Access

The University of Chicago Press supports Green Open Access for all articles, as defined by the RCUK Open Access Policy, under the Press’s Guidelines for Journal Authors’ Rights.

PBZ Need-Based Grant

PBZ will consider contributing a partial need-based grant towards Open Access fees if research is not funded. A formal appeal letter to Editor in Chief Theodore Garland, Jr. is required for consideration.

Preparing Accepted Manuscripts for Publication

Before an accepted manuscript is forwarded to production, the following items must be provided by the corresponding author to the PBZ editorial office: a signed publication agreement and suitable final figures, if the figures submitted with the final manuscript were not of suitable quality for publication.

Signed Publication Agreement

The publication agreement will be sent to you by the PBZ editorial office. This agreement should be signed by each author and returned to the editorial offices via e-mail ( or courier service.

Final Electronic Copy of the Accepted Manuscript and Tables

Submit the electronic copy via Editorial Manager in Microsoft Word (RTF or PDF files are not acceptable). This document should include tables and figure legends, but not the figures themselves.

Submit only the final version of the article.

Do not submit files that contain links to other files or that subscribe to other documents. Do not include anything in the file that was not created with the word processor; for example, do not embed tables from a spreadsheet or database program into a document (unless the word processor first converts them to its native format). Exception: for embedding equations in a word-processing file, see the Guidelines for Mathematical and Other Non-ASCII Symbols.

Follow these formatting guidelines:

  • Use 12-point type in one of the standard fonts: Times, Helvetica, Arial, or Courier.
  • Use double spacing.
  • Use underlining or italic, not both. Avoid boldface. Use minimal formatting on section headings. (Underlining, italic, or boldface may, of course, be used in instances where the formatting conveys a particular meaning, for example, to distinguish mathematical variables.)
  • If you use automatic footnotes and your word processor allows you to choose between footnotes and endnotes, always choose footnotes.
  • If you use any revision or editorial tracking feature (such as Microsoft Word's Revisions or Track Changes commands), be sure that the document you submit has been finalized—that is, that all changes have been accepted or rejected and the file contains only one version of the document.
  • Use the word processor's built-in superscript and subscript attributes rather than special commands to change the font size or position. Exception: when inserting footnotes, allow the word processor to format footnote references however it will.
  • Use hard returns (pressing the Return or Enter key) only to end a heading or paragraph and begin a new one. Do not use hard returns to end a line early to make the right margin appear to be indented.
  • Use tabs only to indent the beginning of a new paragraph. Do not insert tabs after the beginning of a paragraph to create a hanging indent (e.g., for references). Instead, change the left and first indent settings appropriately.
  • Do not change fonts when italic or boldface is needed. Apply an italic or bold style to the font, but do not change the font itself.
  • Do not use any automatic line numbering or paragraph numbering features (for lists, etc.). Any numbers that should appear in your article must be typed in.
  • Do not use Hidden Text or Comments features or nonprinting text of any kind.
  • If your article contains mathematical formulae, special math characters, foreign letters, or other non-ASCII characters, see the Guidelines for Mathematical and Other Non-ASCII Symbols.

Final Electronic Copy of the Figures

Quality and Content
Generally, the quality of the artwork in print will depend on the quality of the artwork provided by the author of an accepted manuscript. Follow these guidelines for artwork:

  • Line art should be provided as bitmapped TIFF files saved at a resolution of 800–1200 dpi (pixels per inch).
  • Black and white photographs, micrographs, and so on should be provided as grayscale TIFF files saved at a resolution of approximately 300 dpi.
  • Color art should be provided as EPS files, CMYK, at a resolution of 150–300 dpi. (If this format is not available, provide color art as Photoshop files.)
  • The following formats are not acceptable for figures: Word or PowerPoint, JPEG, or GIF.
  • Keep in mind that figures will be reduced by about one-half, to a single column width.
  • Graphics downloaded from Web pages are not acceptable for print reproduction. These graphics are low-resolution images (usually 72 dpi) that are suitable for screen display but far below acceptable standards for print reproduction. The only exception to this rule is a screen capture of a Web page that is being discussed or reviewed.
  • Figures themselves should not contain a title or text that is duplicated in the figure legend.
  • Please use the same font type for all figures in your article; use standard fonts such as Times, Courier, Arial, Helvetica, or Symbol. Sans serif fonts such as Arial and Helvetica are ideal and should be used whenever possible.
  • Do not use lines that are thinner than 2 points, and do not use the "hairline" width option.
  • Light or electron micrographs should include a scale bar.
  • For further information about the preparation of figures, see the Guidelines for Artwork.


If the artwork you are submitting has been published elsewhere (including posting on the Internet) or is otherwise copyrighted, we must have a letter of permission from the copyright holder in order to use the image. In addition, if the artwork is not your own, we will need information about its source.

Online Submission Instructions

Please have the following items readily available before beginning the online submission process:

  • Manuscript in an acceptable format as described above
  • Cover letter as a separate file (optional)
  • Information from title page: title, running head, list of authors and affiliations, contact information for the corresponding author
  • Abstract of the manuscript (to be copied and pasted into a field in Editorial Manager)
  • Names and contact information for up to three suggested referees for the manuscript

Submit your manuscript to the Physiological and Biochemical Zoology Editorial Manager system at