Instructions for Authors


Statement of Policy

Papers submitted to the Journal of Legal Studies must not have been published and must not be under consideration elsewhere. We do not publish notes, comments, or book reviews.


Manuscripts are reviewed in a single-blind process: the identities of authors are revealed to referees, but referees remain anonymous. Your manuscript should include a title page with each author's name and contact information.


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Manuscript Submission

Preparing Files for Online Submission

Manuscripts must be in English and begin with a title page that includes the names, e-mail addresses, and affiliations of all authors and an abstract of 150 or fewer words. Text should be double spaced. Any reasonable citation style is fine for submission purposes: our Web site style sheets are for accepted papers only.

File formats.
The preferred format for submitting manuscripts online is Microsoft Word (.doc). If you are unable to submit a Microsoft Word file, Editorial Manager will also accept LaTeX (.tex), WordPerfect (.wpd), Adobe Acrobat (.pdf), and Rich Text Format (.rtf) files.

File content.
Manuscripts are preferred as separate files for text and for figures. Alternatively, you may submit a single file with figures, tables, and images included in the main document. You may submit a cover letter in a second file, either in the same format as your main text file or in plain text format (ASCII file).

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Submitting Your Manuscript

Manuscripts should be submitted via Editorial Manager at The system relies on automated processing to create an Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) file from your submission. Step-by-step instructions will guide you through the process. If you have problems, please contact for assistance. You will receive an e-mail confirmation from the system when your submission is checked in and sent to the editors.


It is not necessary to suggest reviewers for your paper. If you choose to do so, please note that you must suggest at least five reviewers if you would like your suggestions to be considered. Please do not include suggestions for referees in your submission’s cover letter: your cover letter is built into the pdf file with your submission and will be seen by referees.

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After Acceptance

Guidelines for Manuscript Preparation

After your manuscript has been accepted, it will be edited in accordance with the practice of the Journal of Legal Studies and the University of Chicago Press. With some exceptions, we use the Chicago Manual of Style, Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, and our in-house style sheets. The University of Chicago Press offers specific instructions for tables (Manuscript Preparation - Tables), figures (Manuscript Preparation - Artwork), and math (Manuscript Preparation - Math).

Journal of Legal Studies Style

The manuscript should be arranged in the following order:

title page
abstract (strict limit of 150 words)
text and citations
figure legends

  • For general matters of style, the Journal of Legal Studies follows the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, published by The University of Chicago Press.
  • The Journal of Legal Studies uses the following subheadings (in this order):

    1. FULL CAPS
    1.1. Caps and Lowercase
    1.1.1. Italic Caps and Lowercase

  • For spelling and hyphenation, refer to Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th edition, and the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, especially section 7.85.
  • Refer to people by first and last name at first mention (Frank Easterbrook) and by only last name thereafter (Easterbrook). Do not use "Professor," "Mr.," or other titles.
  • Please follow the online instructions for preparation of math.
  • Each figure and table must be mentioned in the text in order of its appearance. All figures and tables, including those in appendixes, must be mentioned in the text.


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All citations, in text and footnotes, should be in author/date style.

One author

T: Following Ely (1980), we argue that
R: Ely, John Hart. 1980. Democracy and Distrust: A Theory of Judicial Review. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Two authors

T: As demonstrated elsewhere (Daniels and Martin 1995),
R: Daniels, Stephen, and Joanne Martin. 1995. Civil Injuries and the Politics of Reform. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press.

Three authors

T: As suggested by Cecil, Lind, and Bermant (1987),
R: Cecil, Joe S., E. Allan Lind, and Gordon Bermant. 1987. Jury Service in Lengthy Civil Trials. Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center.

More than three authors

T: Following the research design in Turner et al. (2002),
R: Turner, Charles F., Susan M. Rogers, Heather G. Miller, William C. Miller, James N. Gribble, James R. Chromy, Peter A. Leone, Phillip C. Cooley, Thomas C. Quinn, and Jonathan M. Zenilman. 2002. Untreated Gonococcal and Chlamydial Infection in a Probability Sample of Adults. Journal of the American Medical Association 287:726-33.

Institutional author

T: (U.S. Department of Justice 1992)
R: U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1992. Civil Justice Survey of State Courts. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

No author

T: (Journal of the Assembly 1822, pp. 952-53).
R: Journal of the Assembly of the State of New York at Their Forty-Fifth Session, Begun and Held at the Capitol, in the City of Albany, the First Day of January, 1822. 1822. Albany: Cantine & Leake.

With locating information

(Hovenkamp 1994, pp. 366-69)
(Wiel 1911, pp. 1:792-831; Scott and Coustalin 1995)
(Smith 2003, chap. 11; Jennings 1998, fig. 2a)
Craswell (2003, p. 255 n. 13)- where note 13 is on page 255
Craswell (2003, p. 254 and n. 11)- where note 11 is not on page 254

With simple signal

(see, for example, Corcoran 2004; Mullen 2000)
(see especially Demsetz 1967, p. 350)

Chatty in-text citation

(see Polinsky and Shavell [1979, 1984], for a discussion)
We use a biweight kernel with a smoothing parameter optimized on the assumption that the underlying data are normally distributed (see Silverman [1986] and Stine [1996] for more information on kernel estimation).

More than one work

Clermont and Eisenberg (1992, 1998)

More than one work in a year

T: (White 1991a, p. C1)
R: White, James A. 1991a. Shareholder-Rights Movement Sways a Number of Big Companies. Wall Street Journal, April 4.

Multiple authors and works

(Grogger 1991; Witte 1980; Levitt 1997)/p>

Chapter in a book

T: Holmes (1988) argues that
R: Holmes, Stephen. 1988. Precommitment and the Paradox of Democracy. Pp. 195-240 in Constitutionalism and Democracy, edited by John Elster and Rune Slagstad. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chapter in a multivolume work

T: Schwartz and Sykes (1998) differ from this view
R: Schwartz, Warren F., and Alan O. Sykes. 1998. Most-Favoured-Nation Obligations in International Trade. Pp. 660-64 in vol. 2 of The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and the Law, edited by Peter Newman. London: MacMillan.


T: Using the method of Greene (1997), we constructed a model to show
R: Greene, William H. 1997. Econometric Analysis. 3d ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.


T: (Angell and Ames [1832] 1972, p. 24)
R: Angell, Joseph Kinniaut, and Samuel Ames. [1832] 1972. A Treatise on the Law of Private Corporations Aggregate. Reprint, New York: Arno Press.

Journal article

T: The model used in Levine et al. (1999)
R: Levine, Phillip B., Douglas Staiger, Thomas J. Kane, and David J. Zimmerman. 1999. Roe v. Wade and American Fertility. American Journal of Public Health 89:199-203.

Entire issue of a journal

T: The fairness or efficiency benefits of bad-faith laws are discussed at length in Texas Law Review (1994)
R: Texas Law Review. 1994. Symposium: Law of Bad Faith in Contrast and Insurance, special issue. 72:1203-1702.

Magazine or newspaper article with no author

T: had appeared in Newsweek (2000).
R: Newsweek. 2000. Gets Ripped. September 18.

Magazine or newspaper article with author(s)

T: (Mathews and DeBaise 2000)
R: Mathews, Anna Wilde and Colleen DeBaise. 2000. Deal Ends Lawsuit on Copyrights. Wall Street Journal, November 11.

Unpublished manuscript

T: (Daughety and Reinganum 2002)
R: Daughety, Andrew F., and Jennifer F. Reinganum. 2002. Exploiting Future Settlements: A Signaling Model of Most-Favored-Nation Clauses in Settlement Bargaining. Unpublished manuscript. Vanderbilt University, Department of Economics, August.

Working paper

T: (Eisenberg and Wells 2002)
R: Eisenberg, Theodore, and Martin T. Wells. 2002. Trial Outcomes and Demographics: Is There a Bronx Effect? Working paper. Cornell University Law School, Ithaca, NY.

Numbered working paper

T: (Glaeser and Sacerdote 2000)
R: Glaeser, Edward L., and Bruce Sacerdote. 2000. The Determinants of Punishment: Deterrence, Incapacitation and Vengeance. Working Paper No. 7676. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Mass.


T: In International Salt Co. v. United States (332 U.S. 392 [1947]), for example,
R: Do not include cases in the reference list

Subsequent in-text citations of case

(332 U.S. 397)
( International Salt, 332 U.S. at 398).

Personal correspondence/communication

T: as asserted by Welch (1998)
R: Welch, Thomas. 1998. Letter to author, 15 January.

Stable url

T: According to the Federal Trade Commission (1999),
R: Federal Trade Commission. 1999. State Agencies Administering Franchise Disclosure Laws. (last updated June 16, 1999).

Data set

T: We ran regressions on the number of crimes committed during the period (U.S. Department of Justice 1973-99)
R: U.S. Department of Justice. Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1973Ð99. Capital Punishment in the United States (computer file). Ann Arbor, Mich.: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research.

In press

T: (Spier 2003)
R: Spier, Kathryn E. 2003. The Use of Most-Favored-Nations Clauses in Settlement of Litigation. RAND Journal of Economics, vol. 34, in press.


T: One study (Joyce, forthcoming) includes the District of Columbia
R: Joyce, Ted. Forthcoming. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime? Journal of Human Resources.


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  • An acknowledgment note should be included and placed at the beginning of the footnotes. The acknowledgement note should begin with the names, titles, and affiliations of the authors.
  • Footnotes must be substantive and cannot contain purely bibliographic material. Simple citations must be in the text.


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  • Footnotes in appendixes should be numbered consecutively with those in the rest of the text.
  • Numbering of equations, tables, and figures in appendixes should begin again with 1 (Equation A1, Table A1, Figure A1, and so on, for Appendix A; Equation B1, Table B1, Figure B1, and so on, for Appendix B).


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  • Tables should be provided in files separate from the text and should be clearly labeled.
  • Tables follow the style given in chapter 13 of the Chicago Manual of Style and must be formatted according to our guide for electronic tables.
  • No more than one table should appear on a page. Tables may run more than one page.
  • Tables should have brief titles. All explanatory material should be provided in notes at the bottom of the table.
  • Identify all quantities, units of measurement, and abbreviations for all entries. What is clear to you may not be clear to the general reader of the Journal of Legal Studies.
  • Sources should be identified in full at the bottom of each table. Do not give cross-references to footnotes elsewhere in the article.
  • Significance levels are denoted in separate notes as follows: +P < .10; * P < .05; ** P < .01.

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  • Figures should be provided in files separate from the text and should be clearly labeled.
  • Do not use shading or color in graphs. If distinctions need to be made visually, please use hatching and cross hatching or another means of display. Grays are difficult to reproduce and often look blotchy in the printed journal.
  • Do not use figure boxes or rules around the figures.
  • Please use the Times Roman font if there is any lettering or text in your figure. Type must be 7 points or larger.
  • Graphics files should not contain any color.
  • Titles to figures should be placed together on a separate double-spaced page labeled Figure Legends.
  • Figures can be no more than 4 inches x 7 inches. To avoid substantial figure reduction, keys to identifying items in the figure should be set within or underneath the figure.

Correcting and Returning Your Page Proofs

Please follow the directions below and return the corrected page proofs to the managing editor via courier or emailed scan within 7 days. Papers received late may be rescheduled for the next available issue.


The corresponding author is responsible for returning the page proofs. The corresponding author is responsible for coordinating all corrections. We will enter corrections only from the corresponding author's proofs.


Access your page proofs. When your page proofs are ready, we will e-mail them to you as a pdf file. Download and print your page proofs, making sure that your Adobe Acrobat printing orientation is set to “auto portrait/landscape” so that broadside tables and figures print properly. A redlined version is also provided for your reference.


Read your proofs. Please read the page proofs carefully and answer all queries addressed to you. (Queries are indicated in the margins by Q1, Q2, Q3, and so on; the queries themselves appear on a separate page at the end of the page proofs.)

Make all changes directly on the page proofs—and please write legibly! Pay close attention to the appearance of figures and to special characters such as Greek letters and mathematical symbols, which can be altered during conversion to our editing programs.

All textual changes must be indicated on the page proofs and not on the redlined version. If you wish to rewrite or add significant portions of text, please e-mail those sections to the managing editor (address below) when you return your proofs. Note that making an excessive number of changes at this stage may result in your paper being rescheduled for a later issue. You will not see your paper again before publication, so all changes must be made at this time. Please do not include a cover letter detailing the changes: we will contact you if we have questions as we enter your changes. To ensure that your changes are received and entered correctly, we cannot accept electronically annotated PDFs containing your corrections.

Order your offprints.
As a contributor to the journal, you will receive 50 free offprints of your article. You may also order additional offprints at your own expense. (Please note that the 50 free offprints are offered per article—not per author. If you have coauthors, you may wish to order additional offprints for them.) Please visit the following URL to place your order for off-prints:

If you have questions about ordering reprints, please contact Gail Hallman at 1-800-635-7181, ext. 8175, or

Return your proofs.
Please return your corrected page proofs to the managing editor within 7 days of receipt. Do not return the redlined version. You may return your proofs via e-mail ( or via courier to the following address:

Journal of Legal Studies
University of Chicago Law School
1111 East 60th Street
Chicago, IL 60637



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