Information for Authors


General Rules for Abbreviations

In the text, authors may use, without definition, abbreviations for units of measurement and the abbreviations in this list. Other abbreviations should be written out the first time and abbreviated thereafter. For example, "Leaf xylem pressure potentials (XPP) were measured. . ." In the title and abstract, words should be spelled out, except for common abbreviations such as DNA.

Accepted Abbreviations and Symbols

above sea level   asl
absorbance (absorbance at 340)   A ( A 340)
adenosine 5'-mono, di-, triphosphate   AMP, ADP, ATP
ampere   A
analysis of variance   ANOVA
atmosphere(s)   atm
base pair   bp
becquerel   Bq, 1 Ci="3.7" x 10 10 Bq
bovine serum albumin   BSA
coefficient of variation   CV
coenzyme A and its acyl derivatives   CoA and acetyl-CoA
concentration   [ ], i.e., [ABA] or other substance
conformatis   cf.
counts per minute   cpm
cultivar   cv
cyclic adenosine 3' : 5'-monophosphate   cAMP
dalton, kilodalton   D, kD
degrees of freedom   df
deoxyribonuclease   DNase
deoxyribonucleic acid   DNA
complementary DNA   cDNA
diameter breast height   dbh
diamidinophenyl-indole   DAPI
diethylaminoethyl   DEAE
dimethyl sulfoxide   DMSO
disintegrations per minute   dpm
electron microscope   EM
scanning electron microscopy   SEM
transmission electron microscopy   TEM
endoplasmic reticulum   ER
Enzyme Commission   EC (when used with EC number--e.g., EC:
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay   ELISA
equation   eq.; plural: eqq. (in parentheses, notes, and figure legends)
equilibrium constant   K
ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid   EDTA
figure   fig. (in parentheses, notes, and figure legends only)
film speed   ASA
formalin-acetic acid-alcohol   FAA
gravity   g (5000 g)
hectare   ha
high-performance liquid chromatography   HPLC
N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine -N'-2-ethanesulfronic acid   Hepes
infrared   IR
inner diameter   i.d.
joule   J
kilobase, kilobase pair   kb, kbp
latitude   lat. (when used with coordinates)
least significant difference   LSD
logarithm (common base 10)   log
logarithm (natural)   ln
longitude   long. (when used with coordinates)
Michaelis constant   K m
milliequivalent(s)   meq
molar solution   M
mole (a gram molecule)   mol
molecular mass, relative   M r
new combination   comb. nov.
new genus   gen. nov.
new species   sp. nov.
normal solution   N
not significant   ns
number   no. (in tables and parentheses) BUT: n to indicate data set
outer diameter   o.d.
pascal (unit of measure)   Pa; 100 kPa="1" bar
percent   %
per mill   % o
phosphate or orthophosphate (inorganic)   Pi
photosynthetically active radiation   PAR (usually µmol m -2 s -1
photosynthetic photon flux density   PPFD (usually µmol m -2 s -1
photosystem I or II   PSI or PSII
pollen mother cell   PMC
polymerase chain reaction   PCR
polyvinylchloride   PVC
polyvinylpyrrolidone   PVP
random amplified polymorphic DNA   RAPD
rate constant   k
relative humidity   RH
restriction fragment length polymorphism   RFLP
retardation factor   R f
revolutions per minute   rpm
ribonuclease   RNase
ribonucleic acid   RNA
messenger RNA   mRNA
nuclear RNA   nRNA
ribosomal RNA   rRNA
transfer RNA   tRNA
ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase   Rubisco
rough endoplasmic reticulum   RER
sodium dodecyl sulfate   SDS
species   sp.; plural: spp. (when part of binomial)
standard deviation   SD
standard error of the mean   SE
temperature   temp (in tables)
thin-layer chromatography   TLC
tris(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane   Tris
N-tris(hydroxymethyl)-methylglycine   Tricine
ultraviolet   UV
Universal Transversal Mercator   UTM
variety   var
volt(s)   V
volume(s)   vol (in tables and eqq. only)
watt   W

Abbreviations of Organizations

Agricultural Research Service   ARS
Commonwealth Scientific and
Industrial Research Organization
Department of Energy   DOE
National Science Foundation   NSF
U.S. Department of Agriculture   USDA

Abbreviations of Herbaria

Follow Index Herbariorum, pt. 1: The Herbaria of the World, 7th ed. (edited by Patricia K. Holmgren, Noel H. Holmgren, and Lisa C. Barnett [Forestburgh, N.Y.: Lubrecht & Cramer, 1981]).