Sources for Chapter 10
The books, Web sites, journal articles, and interviews listed on this page are sources of information other than facts and concepts found in most beginning college-level meteorology textbooks, which the author used or that could help readers better understand the concepts described. For more on various topics, including further reading and links to related Web sites, follow the links labeled “Explorations.” Links labeled “Outtakes” are to text from early drafts of the book that were dropped before publication.
In the notes below “the author” refers to Jack Williams, author of The AMS Weather Book.
- Hurricane Katrina over hurricane center: David Orvalle, “Shift to South Doesn’t Surprise Experts,” Final Edition, The Miami Herald (August 26, 2005): 26.
- NHC hurricanes: The Miami–South Florida NWS Forecast Office’s history Web page.
- Hurricane Forecast Maps graphic: National Hurricane Center’s (NHC) Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Charley Graphics Archives.
- Account of the forecasting of Hurricane Katrina: Based on the author’s interviews with Lixion Avila, Richard Pasch, and James Franklin at the NHC, in Miami, a telephone interview with Jack Bevin, and e-mail exchanges with them.
- Location, strength, and size of Katrina at different times and times and extents of watches and warnings: NHC’s Hurricane Katrina Advisory Archive.
- Profile of Steve Lyons: Based on the author’s telephone interview with Lyons, subsequent e-mail exchanges, and Lyons’s Weather Channel Web page.
- Tropical cyclone basins graphic: Map showing global basins and listing of the world’s tropical forecasting centers on the NOAA Hurricane Research Division’s FAQ page. The Unisys Hurricane/Tropical Data Web site has maps and other data for all of the world’s basins. These go back to 1851 for the Atlantic Basin and to the 1940s for most of the other basins but to only 2000 for the South Pacific Basin.
- Miami’s weather before Katrina: The Weather Underground’s Miami weather history for Sunday, September 18, 2005.
- Hurricane names: NHC’s Worldwide Tropical Cyclone Names Web page.
- Deadly tropical cyclones:
- Bangladesh: From the answer to question E9 on the NOAA Hurricane Research Division’s FAQ.
- Hurricane Mitch and the Galveston hurricane: “Appendix H,” in Bob Sheets and Jack Williams, Hurricane Watch: Forecasting the Deadliest Storms on Earth (New York: Vintage, 2001). The 9,191 listed as missing in the book are presumed dead, bringing the total to approximately 18,000.
- Hurricane Katrina: Richard D. Knabb, Jamie R. Rhome, and Daniel P. Brown, Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Katrina 23–30 August 2005 (PDF file), (Miami: National Hurricane Center, 2006).
- Hurricane categories: Creation of the scale from Jack Williams, “Hurricane Scale Invented to Communicate Storm Danger,” USATODAY.com (May 17, 2005).
- Tidal ranges: Water Level Tidal Predictions Web page on the NOAA National Ocean Service’s Web site, Tides and Currents.
- The power source text and the hurricane heat engine part of the graphic on page 239: Kerry A. Emanuel, Divine Wind: The History and Science of Hurricanes (New York: Oxford University Press US, 2005), 54–61. Jeffrey Rosenfeld, in his Eye of the Storm: Inside the World’s Deadliest Hurricanes, Tornadoes, and Blizzards (New York: Plenum, 1999), describes James Pollard Espy’s experiments that led him to conclude that heat released by condensation powers storms (pages 59–67) and notes Espy “compared his storm model to a steam engine” (page 66). The Wikipedia entry on Carnot is a good introduction to him and his theories. Readers who are comfortable working their way through scientific explanations will find that the Carnot Cycle pages on the HyperPhysics Web site will help them better appreciate hurricanes as heat engines.
- Inside a hurricane graphic: Drawings on page 238 are based in part on a NOAA satellite image and a University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) graphic. Whirls within the Whirls, at the bottom of page 293, is based on NASA’s Towers in the Tempest visualization.
- Climate and tropical cyclones: See Explorations: Hurricanes and Climate Change.
- The eye: Edward R. Murrow’s “Eye of a Hurricane” television broadcast is on The Best of “See It Now” (DVD), produced by Docurama.com.
- Explorations: Hurricane Flying
- The “glass cockpit” in the Air Force Reserve WC-130 contrasts with the 1970s cockpit of the NOAA WP-3 in the photo on page 247 of The AMS Weather Book. The Air Force Hurricane Hunter airplane is the latest model of the C-130. Glass cockpit refers to use of computer screens to display information that mechanical gauges display in older airplanes.
- Satellite wind estimates: Christopher Velden, et al., “The Dvorak Tropical Cyclone Intensity Estimation Technique: A Satellite-Based Method That Has Endured for over 30 Years,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) 87 (September 2006): 1195–1210.
- Eastern Pacific hurricanes: “Pacific Hurricanes: The Forgotten Storms” from the Weather Doctor Web site; “Hurricanes Rarely Hit Hawaii” from USATODAY.com.
- The RAINEX experiment: “RAINEX: Bad Weather Is Good News,” UCAR Staff Notes Monthly (November 2005).
- The mid-1970s instrument panel of the NOAA WP-3, shown in the photo on page 247 of The AMS Weather Book, is a sharp contrast to the twenty-first century glass cockpit of the Air Force Reserve WP0130, seen in the photo on page 244. Pilots sometimes refer to instruments like those of the WP-3 as steam gauges because of their resemblance to the gauges found in steam locomotives. The four blue levers control the power of the airplane’s four engines.
- Shortcomings of categories: Based on the author’s interview with Frank Marks at his office in Miami and subsequent e-mail exchanges.
- Eyewall replacement graphic: Based on images in Robert A. Houze, et al., “Hurricane Intensity and Eyewall Replacement,” Science 315 (March 2, 2007): 1235–1239.
- Profile of Max Mayfield: Based on the author’s conversations with Mayfield at the National Hurricane Center, in Miami, and subsequent e-mail exchanges.
- In addition to Emanuel, Divine Wind: The History and Science of Hurricanes, and Sheets and Williams, Hurricane Watch: Forecasting the Deadliest Storms on Earth,mentioned above, two other books that are recommended for further explorations of hurricanes and other tropical cyclones are Robert Simpson, ed., Hurricane! Coping with Disaster (Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union, 2003) and Chris Mooney, Storm World: Hurricanes, Politics, and the Battle over Global Warming (Orlando, FL: Harcourt, 2007). See Explorations: Hurricanes and Climate Change for more on Storm World.
- More information on the two-page map showing global tropical cyclones can be found on the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship Web site. This information includes how the data were collected and merged, and how to access subsets of the data such for individual basins or particular years.