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Sources for Chapter 10

The books, Web sites, journal articles, and interviews listed on this page are sources of information other than facts and concepts found in most beginning college-level meteorology textbooks, which the author used or that could help readers better understand the concepts described. For more on various topics, including further reading and links to related Web sites, follow the links labeled “Explorations.” Links labeled “Outtakes” are to text from early drafts of the book that were dropped before publication.

In the notes below “the author” refers to Jack Williams, author of The AMS Weather Book.

Page 230
Page 231
  • NHC hurricanes: The Miami–South Florida NWS Forecast Office’s history Web page.
Page 232
Pages 230–233
  • Account of the forecasting of Hurricane Katrina: Based on the author’s interviews with Lixion Avila, Richard Pasch, and James Franklin at the NHC, in Miami, a telephone interview with Jack Bevin, and e-mail exchanges with them.
  • Location, strength, and size of Katrina at different times and times and extents of watches and warnings: NHC’s Hurricane Katrina Advisory Archive.
Page 234
  • Profile of Steve Lyons: Based on the author’s telephone interview with Lyons, subsequent e-mail exchanges, and Lyons’s Weather Channel Web page.
Page 235
  • Tropical cyclone basins graphic: Map showing global basins and listing of the world’s tropical forecasting centers on the NOAA Hurricane Research Division’s FAQ page. The Unisys Hurricane/Tropical Data Web site has maps and other data for all of the world’s basins. These go back to 1851 for the Atlantic Basin and to the 1940s for most of the other basins but to only 2000 for the South Pacific Basin.
  • Miami’s weather before Katrina: The Weather Underground’s Miami weather history for Sunday, September 18, 2005.
Page 236
Pages 236–240
  • The power source text and the hurricane heat engine part of the graphic on page 239: Kerry A. Emanuel, Divine Wind: The History and Science of Hurricanes (New York: Oxford University Press US, 2005), 54–61. Jeffrey Rosenfeld, in his Eye of the Storm: Inside the World’s Deadliest Hurricanes, Tornadoes, and Blizzards (New York: Plenum, 1999), describes James Pollard Espy’s experiments that led him to conclude that heat released by condensation powers storms (pages 59–67) and notes Espy “compared his storm model to a steam engine” (page 66). The Wikipedia entry on Carnot is a good introduction to him and his theories. Readers who are comfortable working their way through scientific explanations will find that the Carnot Cycle pages on the HyperPhysics Web site will help them better appreciate hurricanes as heat engines.
Pages 238–239
Page 240
Page 243
  • The eye: Edward R. Murrow’s “Eye of a Hurricane” television broadcast is on The Best of “See It Now” (DVD), produced by
  • Explorations: Hurricane Flying
Page 244
  • The “glass cockpit” in the Air Force Reserve WC-130 contrasts with the 1970s cockpit of the NOAA WP-3 in the photo on page 247 of The AMS Weather Book. The Air Force Hurricane Hunter airplane is the latest model of the C-130. Glass cockpit refers to use of computer screens to display information that mechanical gauges display in older airplanes.
Page 245
  • Satellite wind estimates: Christopher Velden, et al., “The Dvorak Tropical Cyclone Intensity Estimation Technique: A Satellite-Based Method That Has Endured for over 30 Years,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) 87 (September 2006): 1195–1210.
Page 246
Page 247
  • The mid-1970s instrument panel of the NOAA WP-3, shown in the photo on page 247 of The AMS Weather Book, is a sharp contrast to the twenty-first century glass cockpit of the Air Force Reserve WP0130, seen in the photo on page 244. Pilots sometimes refer to instruments like those of the WP-3 as steam gauges because of their resemblance to the gauges found in steam locomotives. The four blue levers control the power of the airplane’s four engines.
Pages 251–252
  • Shortcomings of categories: Based on the author’s interview with Frank Marks at his office in Miami and subsequent e-mail exchanges.
Page 253
  • Eyewall replacement graphic: Based on images in Robert A. Houze, et al., “Hurricane Intensity and Eyewall Replacement,” Science 315 (March 2, 2007): 1235–1239.
Pages 254–255
  • Profile of Max Mayfield: Based on the author’s conversations with Mayfield at the National Hurricane Center, in Miami, and subsequent e-mail exchanges.
  • In addition to Emanuel, Divine Wind: The History and Science of Hurricanes, and Sheets and Williams, Hurricane Watch: Forecasting the Deadliest Storms on Earth,mentioned above, two other books that are recommended for further explorations of hurricanes and other tropical cyclones are Robert Simpson, ed., Hurricane! Coping with Disaster (Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union, 2003) and Chris Mooney, Storm World: Hurricanes, Politics, and the Battle over Global Warming (Orlando, FL: Harcourt, 2007). See Explorations: Hurricanes and Climate Change for more on Storm World.
Pages 256–257

book jacket
The AMS Weather Book:The Ultimate Guide to America’s Weather
Jack Williams
With Forewords by Rick Anthes and Stephanie Abrams
©2009, 368 pages, 140 color plates, 70 halftones 8-1/2 x 10-7/8
Cloth $35.00 ISBN: 9780226898988

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